Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9856736, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9856736
Research Article

Comparison of In Vivo Gene Expression Profiling of RPE/Choroid following Intravitreal Injection of Dexamethasone and Triamcinolone Acetonide

1Vitreoretinal Research Laboratory, UC Davis Department of Ophthalmology, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, UC Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 2400, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA

Received 4 March 2016; Revised 29 April 2016; Accepted 3 May 2016

Academic Editor: Tamer A. Macky

Copyright © 2016 Zeljka Smit-McBride et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Ip, I. U. Scott, P. C. VanVeldhuisen et al., “A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) study report 5,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 1101–1114, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Haller, F. Bandello, R. Belfort Jr. et al., “Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema related to branch or central retinal vein occlusion: twelve-month study results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 2453–2460, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. K. P. Sutter, J. M. Simpson, and M. C. Gillies, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema that persists after laser treatment: Three-month efficacy and safety results of a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Ophthalmology, vol. 111, no. 11, pp. 2044–2049, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. S. Boyer, Y. H. Yoon, R. Belfort et al., “Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 1904–1914, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Lowder, R. Belfort Jr., S. Lightman et al., “Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 545–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Kok, C. Lau, N. Maycock, P. McCluskey, and S. Lightman, “Outcome of intravitreal triamcinolone in uveitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 1916.e1–1916.e7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. F. Kiernan and W. F. Mieler, “The use of intraocular corticosteroids,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 2511–2525, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. J. Kleinberger, C. Patel, R. M. Lieberman, and B. D. Malkin, “Bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy caused by intranasal corticosteroids: A case report and review of the literature,” Laryngoscope, vol. 121, no. 9, pp. 2034–2037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Z. Smit-McBride, S. P. Modjtahedi, C. T. Cessna, D. G. Telander, L. M. Hjelmeland, and L. S. Morse, “In vivo gene expression profiling of retina postintravitreal injections of dexamethasone and triamcinolone at clinically relevant time points for patient care,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 8965–8978, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. Smit-McBride, S. L. Oltjen, M. M. LaVail, and L. M. Hjelmeland, “A strong genetic determinant of hyperoxia-related retinal degeneration on mouse chromosome 6,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 405–411, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. Li, “Volcano plots in analyzing differential expressions with mRNA microarrays,” Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, vol. 10, no. 6, Article ID 1231003, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Chen, J. V. Forrester, and H. Xu, “Synthesis of complement factor H by retinal pigment epithelial cells is down-regulated by oxidized photoreceptor outer segments,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 635–645, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Edgar, M. Domrachev, and A. E. Lash, “Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 207–210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Barrett, S. E. Wilhite, P. Ledoux et al., “NCBI GEO: Archive for functional genomics data sets—update,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. D991–D995, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. P. DeBruyne, D. R. Weaver, and S. M. Reppert, “CLOCK and NPAS2 have overlapping roles in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 543–545, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Boulberdaa, K. Urayama, and C. G. Nebigil, “Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) signalling in cardiovascular and kidney functions,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 191–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Lee, J.-P. Etchegaray, F. R. A. Cagampang, A. S. I. Loudon, and S. M. Reppert, “Posttranslational mechanisms regulate the mammalian circadian clock,” Cell, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 855–867, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. V. Kondratov, M. V. Chernov, A. A. Kondratova, V. Y. Gorbacheva, A. V. Gudkov, and M. P. Antoch, “BMAL1-dependent circadian oscillation of nuclear CLOCK: posttranslational events induced by dimerization of transcriptional activators of the mammalian clock system,” Genes and Development, vol. 17, no. 15, pp. 1921–1932, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Li, X. Ao, J. Jia, Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Effects of optineurin siRNA on apoptotic genes and apoptosis in RGC-5 cells,” Molecular Vision, vol. 17, pp. 3314–3325, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C.-M. Guo, Y.-S. Wang, D. Hu et al., “Modulation of migration and Ca2+ signaling in retinal pigment epithelium cells by recombinant human CTGF,” Current Eye Research, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 852–862, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Barro-Soria, J. Stindl, C. Müller et al., “Angiotensin-2-mediated Ca2+ signaling in the retinal pigment epithelium: role of angiotensin-receptor- associated-protein and TRPV2 channel,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e49624, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. P. Mahesh, Z. Li, R. Buggage et al., “Alpha tropomyosin as a self-antigen in patients with Behçet's disease,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 368–375, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Saisho, P. E. Harris, A. E. Butler et al., “Relationship between pancreatic vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and insulin expression in human pancreas,” Journal of Molecular Histology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 543–551, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. I. Bernstein, K. A. Stout, and G. W. Miller, “The vesicular monoamine transporter 2: an underexplored pharmacological target,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 89–97, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J.-L. Thomas, K. Baker, J. Han et al., “Interactions between VEGFR and Notch signaling pathways in endothelial and neural cells,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1779–1792, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. S. Teirstein, A. I. Goldman, and P. J. O'Brien, “Evidence for both local and central regulation of rat rod outer segment disc shedding,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1268–1273, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. C. Besharse and J. G. Hollyfield, “Turnover of mouse photoreceptor outer segments in constant light and darkness,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1019–1024, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. M. LaVail, “Rod outer segment disk shedding in rat retina: relationship to cyclic lighting,” Science, vol. 194, no. 4269, pp. 1071–1074, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Tosini, A. J. Davidson, C. Fukuhara, M. Kasamatsu, and O. Castanon-Cervantes, “Localization of a circadian clock in mammalian photoreceptors,” FASEB Journal, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 3866–3871, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Sakamoto, C. Liu, M. Kasamatsu, P. M. Iuvone, and G. Tosini, “Intraocular injection of kainic acid does not abolish the circadian rhythm of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA in rat photoreceptors,” Molecular Vision, vol. 12, pp. 117–124, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Tosini and M. Menaker, “The clock in the mouse retina: melatonin synthesis and photoreceptor degeneration,” Brain Research, vol. 789, no. 2, pp. 221–228, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Baba, A. Sengupta, M. Tosini, S. Contreras-Alcantara, and G. Tosini, “Circadian regulation of the PERIOD 2::LUCIFERASE bioluminescence rhythm in the mouse retinal pigment epitheliumchoroid,” Molecular Vision, vol. 16, pp. 2605–2611, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Pavan, E. Frigato, S. Pozzati, P. D. Prasad, C. Bertolucci, and C. Biondi, “Circadian clocks regulate adenylyl cyclase activity rhythms in human RPE cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 350, no. 1, pp. 169–173, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. N. Peirson, P. H. M. Bovee-Geurts, D. Lupi, G. Jeffery, W. J. DeGrip, and R. G. Foster, “Expression of the candidate circadian photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 123, no. 1-2, pp. 132–135, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G.-X. Ruan, G. C. Allen, S. Yamazaki, and D. G. McMahon, “An autonomous circadian clock in the inner mouse retina regulated by dopamine and GABA,” PLoS Biology, vol. 6, no. 10, article e249, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. Yujnovsky, J. Hirayama, M. Doi, E. Borrelli, and P. Sassone-Corsi, “Signaling mediated by the dopamine D2 receptor potentiates circadian regulation by CLOCK:BMAL1,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 16, pp. 6386–6391, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. S. Terman, C. E. Remé, and M. Terman, “Rod outer segment disk shedding in rats with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus,” Brain Research, vol. 605, no. 2, pp. 256–264, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Saini, D. M. Suter, A. Liani, P. Gos, and U. Schibler, “The mammalian circadian timing system: synchronization of peripheral clocks,” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 76, pp. 39–47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. U. Schibler and P. Sassone-Corsi, “A web of circadian pacemakers,” Cell, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 919–922, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Stratmann and U. Schibler, “Properties, entrainment, and physiological functions of mammalian peripheral oscillators,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 494–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Dickmeis, “Glucocorticoids and the circadian clock,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 3–22, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. L. Barclay, A. H. Tsang, and H. Oster, “Interaction of central and peripheral clocks in physiological regulation,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 199, pp. 163–181, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Sujino, K. Furukawa, S. Koinuma et al., “Differential entrainment of peripheral clocks in the rat by glucocorticoid and feeding,” Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 2277–2286, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Pezük, J. A. Mohawk, L. A. Wang, and M. Menaker, “Glucocorticoids as entraining signals for peripheral circadian oscillators,” Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 10, pp. 4775–4783, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. A. Trammell, S. Verhulst, and L. A. Toth, “Effects of sleep fragmentation on sleep and markers of inflammation in mice,” Comparative Medicine, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Leproult, U. Holmbäck, and E. Van Cauter, “Circadian misalignment augments markers of insulin resistance and inflammation, independently of sleep loss,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1860–1869, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. Maury, H. K. Hong, and J. Bass, “Circadian disruption in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 338–346, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Gibbs, L. Ince, L. Matthews et al., “An epithelial circadian clock controls pulmonary inflammation and glucocorticoid action,” Nature Medicine, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 919–926, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Leliavski, A. Shostak, J. Husse, and H. Oster, “Impaired glucocorticoid production and response to stress in arntl-deficient male mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 133–142, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Q. Wang, S. N. Bozack, Y. Yan, M. E. Boulton, M. B. Grant, and J. V. Busik, “Regulation of retinal inflammation by rhythmic expression of miR-146a in diabetic retina,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 3986–3994, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. X. Qian, S. K. Droste, S. L. Lightman, J. M. H. M. Reul, and A. C. E. Linthorst, “Circadian and ultradian rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone are highly synchronized between the blood, the subcutaneous tissue, and the brain,” Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 9, pp. 4346–4353, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. Tomkins-Netzer, S. R. J. Taylor, A. Bar et al., “Treatment with repeat dexamethasone implants results in long-term disease control in eyes with noninfectious uveitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 1649–1654, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Sanford, “Fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant (Iluvien®): in diabetic macular oedema,” Drugs, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. J. Jaffe, R. M. McCallum, B. Branchaud, C. Skalak, Z. Butuner, and P. Ashton, “Long-term follow-up results of a pilot trial of a fluocinolone acetonide implant to treat posterior uveitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1192–1198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Moisseiev, M. Goldstein, M. Waisbourd, A. Barak, and A. Loewenstein, “Long-term evaluation of patients treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion,” Eye, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. M. Newman, N. B. Gallo, L. S. Hancox et al., “Systems-level analysis of age-related macular degeneration reveals global biomarkers and phenotype-specific functional networks,” Genome Medicine, vol. 4, article 16, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Girotto, N. Pirastu, R. Sorice et al., “Hearing function and thresholds: a genome-wide association study in European isolated populations identifies new loci and pathways,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 369–374, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Mick, B. Neale, F. A. Middleton, J. J. McGough, and S. V. Faraone, “Genome-wide association study of response to methylphenidate in 187 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 1412–1418, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. Suwanjang, K. M. Holmström, B. Chetsawang, and A. Y. Abramov, “Glucocorticoids reduce intracellular calcium concentration and protects neurons against glutamate toxicity,” Cell Calcium, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 256–263, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. A. Friedman, L. Van Laer, M. J. Huentelman et al., “GRM7 variants confer susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 785–796, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Van Laer, J. R. Huyghe, S. Hannula et al., “A genome-wide association study for age-related hearing impairment in the Saami,” European Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 685–693, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Elia, J. T. Glessner, K. Wang et al., “Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Nature Genetics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Ganda, S. G. Schwab, N. Amir et al., “A family-based association study of DNA sequence variants in GRM7 with schizophrenia in an Indonesian population,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1283–1289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y.-L. Zhao, K.-R. Zhang, Q. Xu, and Y. Shen, “Association between copy number variants within metabotropic glutamate receptors 7 gene and schizophrenia,” Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 664–668, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Takaki, R. Kikuta, H. Shibata, H. Ninomiya, N. Tashiro, and Y. Fukumaki, “Positive associations of polymorphisms in the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 8 gene (GRM8) with schizophrenia,” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 6–14, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. T. Gehman, P. Stoilov, J. Maguire et al., “The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain,” Nature Genetics, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 706–711, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus