Table 5: Comparison of demographics, posterior vitreous status, and psychologic parameters among different discomfort severity groups.

Mild discomfort ()Moderate discomfort ()Severe discomfort () valuesaPost hoc analysisb

Age, yrs54.6 ± 10.156.4 ± 12.258.8 ± 10.30.459
Female, (%)12 (60)15 (63)14 (82)0.289
Diabetes mellitus, (%)3 (15)3 (13)3 (18)0.900
Hypertension, (%)6 (30)7 (29)7 (41)0.685
Education, yrs12.2 3.311.7 3.710.5 2.90.330
Outdoor occupation, (%)3 (15)2 (8)1 (6)0.618
Visual acuity (logMAR)0.07 ± 0.200.06 ± 0.090.06 ± 0.070.965
Refractive errors (SEQ), diopters−1.5 ± 3.4−1.2 ± 3.40.05 ± 2.70.333
Pseudophakia, (%)2 (10)1 (4)1 (6)0.820
PVD grading, (%)0.091c
 No PVD4 (20)4 (17)1 (6)
 Partial PVD2 (10)2 (8)0
 Complete PVD14 (70)18 (75)16 (94)
Depression (PHQ-9)3.1 ± 3.56.3 ± 5.910.9 ± 7.0<0.001Mild, moderate < severe
Stress (PSS)12.8 ± 5.016.3 ± 5.022.4 ± 7.1<0.001Mild < moderate < severe
Anxiety (STAI)
 State anxiety37.3 ± 8.641.7 ± 11.452.4 ± 13.5<0.001Mild, moderate < severe
 Trait anxiety38.0 ± 7.441.8 ± 10.551.4 ± 10.2<0.001Mild, moderate < severe

aOne-way ANOVA and chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively; bpost hoc analysis using LSD method. Significantly different groups are represented; cCuzick’s Wilcoxon-type nonparametric trend test. logMAR: logarithm of minimal angle of resolution; PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PSS: Perceived Stress Scale; PVD: posterior vitreous detachment; SEQ: spherical equivalent; STAI: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.