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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2017, Article ID 4526243, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4526243
Research Article

A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

1Department of Ophthalmology, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114-3096, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Shizuo Mukai; ude.dravrah.ieem@iakuM_ouzihS

Received 12 October 2016; Accepted 7 February 2017; Published 15 March 2017

Academic Editor: Lisa Toto

Copyright © 2017 Bailey Y. Shen and Shizuo Mukai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.