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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2017, Article ID 9549284, 4 pages
Research Article

The Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Perioperative Bleeding in Vitreoretinal Surgery

1The Eye Hospital, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China
2Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

Correspondence should be addressed to Rong Han Wu; moc.361@330sudnuf

Received 16 September 2016; Revised 2 December 2016; Accepted 24 January 2017; Published 16 March 2017

Academic Editor: Tamer A. Macky

Copyright © 2017 Zhong Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To investigate the effect of menstrual cycle on perioperative bleeding of primary vitreoretinal surgery. Methods. Data on female patients who had vitrectomy surgery was retrospectively collected. Exclusion criteria were history of trauma, vitreous hemorrhage, previous vitreoretinal surgery, diabetic retinopathy, endophthalmitis, acute retinal necrosis, single vitreous opacity, and use of antiplatelet agents. Perioperative bleeding was defined as hemorrhage in the iris, vitreous, choroidal, retina, or subretina during surgery or up to one day postoperatively. 69 patients had surgery during the perimenstrual phase (group M, days 1–7 and days 21–28) and 86 during periovulatory phase (group O, days 8–20) were enrolled. Results. The proportion of operative bleeding in group M (14.5%) and group O (10.5%) was not found to be significantly different (). No postoperative bleeding was recorded in both groups. The univariate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of perimenstrual phase for operative bleeding were 0.69 (0.26–1.81). After adjusting for patients’ age, vitreoretinal diseases, and surgeons, the multivariate OR and 95% CI were 0.71 (0.27–1.86). Conclusion. This study suggests that the timing of the menstrual period does not affect perioperative bleeding for primary vitreoretinal surgery. Menstruation appears not to be a contraindication for vitreoretinal surgery.