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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2017, Article ID 9805145, 7 pages
Research Article

Five-Year Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes in a Tertiary Care Center in Lebanon

1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
2Biostatistics Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
3Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
4Fouad Khoury Hospital Bikhazi Medical Group, Beirut, Lebanon
5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
6Fellow-Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Haytham I. S. Salti; bl.ude.bua@60sh

Received 13 January 2017; Accepted 7 May 2017; Published 31 May 2017

Academic Editor: Van C. Lansingh

Copyright © 2017 Carl-Joe Mehanna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To estimate the 5-year incidence of progression rate and regression rate and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a cohort of Lebanese patients with type II diabetes. Methods. We followed a cohort of 462 Lebanese patients with type II diabetes for over 5 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Patients underwent yearly complete ophthalmic evaluation and fundus photographs and were assessed for the incidence, stage, and evolution of DR using modified Airlie House classification. Results. Among the 462 patients, 281 had no DR at baseline. The 5-year cumulative incidence of any DR was 10% (95% CI: 6–13), and only baseline microalbuminuria correlated with the development of DR (, 95% CI: 4.39–25.23, ). Among the 181 patients with baseline DR, the worsening and regression rates of DR were 31.5% (95% CI: 25–38) and 9% (95% CI: 5–13), respectively. Microalbuminuria also approached statistical significance as a risk factor for DR worsening (, 95% CI: 0.97–3.70, ). Conclusion. The 5-year incidence of DR in this hospital-based cohort is relatively low. Microalbuminuria was independently associated with the incidence and progression of the disease. We recommend to screen patients with type II diabetes for microalbuminuria as prognostic for the development and worsening of DR.