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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2019, Article ID 4831967, 6 pages
Research Article

Systemic Factors Related to Intraocular Levels of Interleukin-6 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Diabetic Retinopathy

1Apgujung St. Mary’s Eye Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Department of Ophthalmology, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Republic of Korea
3Keye Eye Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Sohee Jeon; moc.liamg@eeeeehos

Received 12 March 2019; Revised 18 June 2019; Accepted 5 July 2019; Published 17 July 2019

Academic Editor: Masaru Takeuchi

Copyright © 2019 Byung Ju Jung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study is for identifying systemic factors correlating with intraocular levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy. Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for PDR were included in this cross-sectional study. The aqueous humor was sampled just prior to PPV for assay of IL-6 and VEGF. One day before PPV, patient characteristics were recorded and a number of systemic markers were amassed, including fasting and postprandial glucose, homeostasis model assessment- (HOMA-) IR, HOMA-beta, C-peptide, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein- (Apo-) A, Apo-B, and lipoprotein A (Lp-A). Relationships between systemic determinants and intraocular cytokine levels were analyzed by regression analysis. Mean levels of IL-6 and VEGF were 15.3 pg/mL (range, 2.4–10124.5 pg/mL) and 21.1 pg/mL (range, 3.2–766.1 pg/mL), respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, duration of diabetes, and BMI, multivariate analysis showed significant association of smoking () and HOMA-IR () with intraocular IL-6 levels, while intraocular VEGF and systemic Lp-A levels correlated significantly (). Insulin resistance and smoking status impacted intraocular levels of IL-6, while intraocular VEGF levels were influenced by Lp-A. An appreciation for the relationship between systemic factors and intraocular cytokines may help elucidate the complex pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.