Table 1: Demographic and clinical data and univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for persistent or recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy.

ExposureAcute CSC patients (n = 20)Patients with persistent or recurrent CSC (n = 118)Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
cOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)

Male sex14 (70.0)95 (80.5)1.770 (0.614–5.106)0.2915.634 (1.023–31.024)0.047
Age41.00 ± 7.0646.29 ± 8.841.086 (1.016–1.161)0.0151.137 (1.034–1.249)0.008
Hypertension1 (5.0)26 (22.0)5.370 (0.686–42.023)0.1092.140 (0.228–20.116)0.506
Depression4 (20.0)24 (20.3)1.021 (0.313–3.336)0.9721.474 (0.338–6.434)0.606
Allergic diseases4 (20.0)23 (19.5)0.968 (0.296–3.172)0.9583.670 (0.826–16.310)0.088
Tobacco use7 (35.0)52 (44.1)1.463 (0.545–3.930)0.4500.870 (0.227–3.332)0.839
Life changes3 (15.0)17 (14.4)0.954 (0.252–3.608)0.9440.603 (0.119–3.066)0.542
Stress at work11 (55.0)47 (39.8)0.542 (0.208–1.407)0.2080.520 (0.163–1.661)0.270
Monthly amount of alcohol consumed (standard drink)0.00 (0.00, 10.14, range 0.00–84.55)3.38 (0.00, 33.81, range 0.00–169.07)1.019 (0.995–1.043)0.1211.020 (0.993–1.048)0.146
Monthly shift work hours0.00 (0.00, 10.25, range 0–171)0.00 (0.00, 45.75, range 0–360)1.009 (0.995–1.023)0.2321.008 (0.992–1.025)0.338
Sleep beginning time−1 (−2, 0, range −3–1)−1 (−2, 0, range −4–7)1.115 (0.823–1.511)0.4830.966 (0.542–1.720)0.906
Sleep hours per day7.5 (7, 8 range 5–8)7.0 (6, 8 range 2–11)0.805 (0.584–1.110)0.1851.207 (0.677–2.154)0.523
ISI score1 (1, 4, range 0–10)3 (1, 9, range 0–22)1.174 (1.011–1.364)0.0351.298 (1.051–1.604)0.015

aOR = accurate odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; cOR = crude odds ratio; CSC = central serous chorioretinopathy; ISI = Insomnia Severity Index; age is presented as mean ± standard deviation; other continuous variables are presented as median (P25, P75, range); all categorical variables are presented as number (%). Sleep beginning time was reset: we defined 12 am as 0, 11 pm as −1, 1 am as 1, and so on. Thus, the sleep beginning time was rendered a continuous variable.