Journal of Ophthalmology

Journal of Ophthalmology / 2019 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2019 |Article ID 6980208 | 7 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6980208

Burden, Positive Aspects, and Predictive Variables of Caregiving: A Study of Caregivers of Patients with Pediatric Glaucoma

Academic Editor: Antonio Longo
Received13 Nov 2018
Accepted09 Aug 2019
Published26 Aug 2019

Abstract

Purpose. To determine the presence of burden and positive aspects among caregivers of patients with pediatric glaucoma (PG) and to establish whether they were influenced by the characteristics of the caregivers and the patients. Method. This study was designed to be cross-sectional and descriptive. The Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) questionnaires were used to evaluate the caregivers. The demographic data of the enrolled participants were also collected. The CBI and the PAC scores were analyzed in relation to each other and different characteristics of the patients with PG and their caregivers through a generalized linear regression model. Result. Most of enrolled 57 caregivers were found to act with a moderate level of burden and benefits. The emotional subscale score of the CBI is negatively related to the aggregate score of the PAC and to that of outlook on life. Moreover, patients with a longer duration of disease and caregivers who were female, had jobs, had lower education levels, and had lower household incomes have qualities that are positively related to the summary score of the CBI. However, no factors we collected were significantly related to the PAC score. Conclusion. The results suggest that caregivers perceive positive and negative experiences in the care and support of patients suffering from PG. In addition, we should pay more attention to the caregivers with a high risk of experiencing caregiver burden, especially females with jobs and also with lower incomes and lower levels of education.

1. Introduction

Glaucoma accounts for approximately 2% to 15% of the cases of blindness in infancy and childhood all over the world [1]. Pediatric glaucoma (PG) shows different rates of reported incidence in different areas, and these rates are especially higher in low- and middle-income countries [2, 3]. PG, both primary and secondary glaucoma, is a devastating vision-threatening condition characterized by lifelong therapy and periodic follow-up, which brings great challenges and burden for children and their families, especially their primary caregivers [4].

During the provision of delicate care for the children with illness, tremendous sacrifice and stress will lie with the caregivers. The stress and responsibility adversely affecting the caregivers are defined as caregiver burden. Caregiver burden has been reported in many chronic pediatric diseases, such as children with allergies [5], asthma [6], obesity [7], cerebral palsy [8], and epilepsy [9]. It has been reported that children with primary congenital glaucoma and surgery will significantly affect their caregiver’s quality of life (QoL) [10, 11], their emotional burden, and even their severity of depression [4]. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the caregiver burden in Chinese parents of children with PG. Moreover, positive experiences of caregiving also lack sufficient evaluation. Caregiving can also contribute to an improvement in satisfaction and even in QoL, which has been identified in caregivers of individuals with dementia [12, 13] and brain injury [14]. However, there is a paucity of studies of PAC in caregivers of patients with PG. Therefore, we initiated this study to evaluate the Chinese caregiver’s burden and positive experiences, as well as the association between them. Meanwhile, we aim to investigate the subjective factors affecting caregivers’ negative and positive aspects to provide new insights into the more comprehensive acknowledgment of caregiving behaviors and experiences.

2. Methods

In the present study, PG patients and their primary caregivers were enrolled at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, from July 2016 to July 2017. The study conformed to the tenets of the 1995 Declaration of Helsinki, and informed consent was obtained from the enrolled subjects.

The demographic data of the enrolled patients (i.e., age, gender, times of operation, eyes, and duration of disease) and their caregivers (i.e., age, gender, occupation status, education level, household income) were collected.

PG was defined, according to the criteria from the British infantile and childhood glaucoma (BIG) eye studies [15], as (1) intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg, (2) large disc cupping (>0.3) or disc asymmetry, (3) enlarged corneal diameter, corneal edema, or Descement’s membrane splits, (4) progressive myopia or enlarged axial length (with growth rate greater than normal), and (5) visual field defects. The diagnosis of PG should meet at least two or more of the above criteria. The caregivers were parents of the children with PG.

Overall, caregivers were evaluated using the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) [16] and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) questionnaire [17]. The CBI assesses multidimensional aspects of the caregiver burden, including physical (questions 1 to 4), emotional (questions 6, 8, 12, 13, and 14), social (questions 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11), time-dependence (questions 15 to 19), and developmental (questions 20 to 24) burden. Each aspect was scored from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating higher burden levels. The aggregated values range from 0 to 96, with a score between 0 and 32 graded as mild burden, between 33 and 64 graded as moderate burden, and between 65 and 96 graded as severe burden.

The PAC assesses two aspects, including self-affirmation (questions 1 to 6) and outlook on life (questions 7 to 9). There are 9 items, and each aspect is scored from 1 to 5 (1 = disagree a lot, 2 = disagree a little, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = agree a little, and 5 = agree a lot) and scored 0 if the caregivers reply “unknown” or “refuse to answer.” The sum of the scores was calculated to measure the levels of burden or positive aspects of caregivers. The aggregated value ranges from 0 to 45, with a score between 0 and 15 graded as low, 16 to 30 graded as moderate, and 30 to 45 graded as high.

3. Statistical Analyses

Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS software (version 20, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Continuous variables are presented as the mean ± standard deviation/median (min–max). An analysis of the relationship between the aggregated and each aspect value of the CBI, the PAC, and related factors (demographic data for the enrolled patients and caregivers) was conducted using a generalized linear regression model. The level of significance was set at .

4. Results

In the present study, we enrolled 57 patients and their respective caregivers. Their demographic data are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The scale, average, and range of scores on the CBI and PAC are shown in Tables 3 and 4. The magnitude of the CBI scores of most enrolled subjects was graded as mild (23, 40.4%) or moderate in terms of burden (29, 47.4%), while only 5 subjects scored higher than 65 and were considered a severe burden. Regarding the PAC scores, thirty-one of the subjects were categorized as moderate, 9 subjects were categorized as mild, and 17 subjects were categorized as severe. Among the five aspects of the CBI, the order of the average score for each item is as follows: time-dependence (2.54), physical (1.88), development (1.87), social (1.17), and psychological (0.60). Among the 24 questions, the top five items with highest scores are “I have to watch my care-receiver constantly” (Question 17, 3.22), “I expected that things would be different at this point in my life” (Question 24, 2.93), “I have to help my care-receiver with many basic functions” (Question 18, 2.92), “I’m not getting enough sleep” (Question 1, 2.69), and “My care-receiver is dependent on me” (Question 16, 2.66). Among the two aspects of the PAC, the average score for self-affirmation was higher than that for outlook on life. Among the 9 questions, the top two items with highest scores are “It has enabled you to develop a more positive attitude toward life” (Question 8, 3.57) and “It makes you feel needed” (Question 3, 3.07).


Variablen (%)Mean (SD)

Age (in months)30.09 (35.11)
Gender
 Boys38 (66.7)
 Girls19 (33.3)
Times of operation
 139 (68.4)
 211 (19.3)
 ≧37 (12.3)
Eye for operation
 Left14 (24.6)
 Right13 (22.8)
 Both30 (52.6)
Duration of disease
 <1 month19 (33.3)
 1–3 months14 (24.6)
 3–6 months8 (14.0)
 6–12 months4 (7.0)
 >12 months12 (21.1)

SD: standard deviation.

Variablen (%)Mean (SD)

Age (in years)30.02 (4.85)
Gender
 Male19 (33.3)
 Female38 (66.7)
Occupation status
 Employed30 (52.6)
 Unemployed27 (47.4)
Education level
 Primary school or beneath7 (12.3)
 Technical secondary school9 (15.8)
 High school20 (35.1)
 2-year college7 (12.3)
 4-year university or above14 (24.6)
Household income per month
 <10002 (3.5)
 1001–300022 (38.6)
 3001–500015 (26.3)
 5001–70007 (12.3)
 >700011 (19.3)

SD: standard deviation.

BurdenScaleAverage (mean ± SD)Range

Time-dependence0–2012.718 ± 5.530–20
Physical0–167.53 ± 3.880–16
Development0–209.34 ± 5.130–20
Social0–205.85 ± 4.880–20
Emotional0–203.02 ± 3.910–16
Total0–9638.44 ± 18.048–89

SD: standard deviation.

Positive aspectsScaleAverage (mean ± SD)Range

Self-affirmation0–3016.88 ± 6.224–30
Outlook on life0–159.24 ± 3.500–15
Total0–4526.12 ± 8.4510–45

SD: standard deviation.

The relationship between the CBI score and the PAC is shown in Table 5. Only the psychological score of the CBI was negatively related to the aggregate score of the PAC and the score for outlook on life. The generalized linear regression analysis of the demographic factors of the CBI score is summarized in Table 6. CBI scores differed by the duration of the disease, gender, occupational status, education level, and household income of caregivers but not by the other factors. Compared with patients whose duration of disease is more than 1 year, patients with a short duration of disease bring less burden to their caregivers. Moreover, compared with caregivers who are male, unemployed, less educated, and with less household income, caregivers who are female, working, and more educated and have more household income suffer a greater burden. However, we did not find any correlation between the demographic factors and the summary scores of the PAC.


Aggregate score of PACSelf-affirmationOutlook on life

Aggregate score of CBIPearson correlation−0.195−0.131−0.232
Significance (two-sided test)0.1460.3320.082

PhysicalPearson correlation0.0550.074−0.001
Significance (two-sided test)0.6860.5820.995

SocialSpearman correlation coefficient−0.243−0.218−0.226
Significance (two-sided test)0.0680.1030.092

EmotionalSpearman correlation coefficient−0.327−0.258−0.382
Significance (two-sided test)0.0130.0530.003

Time-dependenceSpearman correlation coefficient0.0760.153−0.108
Significance (two-sided test)0.5720.2570.425

DevelopmentPearson correlation−0.23−0.171−0.244
Significance (two-sided test)0.0850.2020.068


χ2Degrees of freedom

Intercept377.54610
Duration of disease10.92240.027
Gender of caregiver6.19510.013
Occupation8.37910.004
Education11.48740.022
Household income10.67340.03

As shown by more detailed analysis, caregivers with lower education levels suffer a greater burden from aspects of development. Being female and working are positively related to the physiological burden. Patients who are younger and have undergone a longer disease duration and caregivers older in age and lower in household income show positive associations with the time-dependent burden (Tables 79).


χ2Degrees of freedom

Intercept200.59410
Education10.59440.032


χ2Degrees of freedom

Intercept66.03710
Gender of caregiver3.98510.046
Occupation4.7910.029


χ2Degrees of freedom

Intercept0.0810.778
Duration of disease13.8440.008
Age of patient9.9710.002
Age of caregiver4.9910.025
Household income13.82940.008

5. Discussion

PG is the leading blinding condition in infancy and childhood. Most of these patients are in need of surgical intervention, with 31.6% of our study sample requiring two or more operations, which is similar to the findings of other studies [13, 18]. Even with proper management, the progression of PG is notoriously difficult to control due to late and challenging diagnosis. Vision-threatening progression requires comprehensive and long-term follow-up, which will affect the QoL of the patients affected by PG, as well as that of their caregivers [9, 10].

The caregiver burden was initially studied and conceptualized in the 1960s [1921]. The most common concepts include physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and financial burden, with each representing different aspects of the stress and depression of caregivers [11, 22, 23]. The deterioration of both the physical and psychological health of caregivers was likely to result from caregiver burden, which also led to negative feedback directed toward the care recipients [24, 25]. In the present study, the caregivers of PG patients were found to act with a mild or moderate level of burden, as shown by the CBI questionnaire, which is less serious than the findings of other studies using another assessment instrument called the Caregiver Burden Questionnaire [10]. However, there have been few reports of positive experiences of caregivers of children with PG. PAC was reported as appraisal, satisfaction, sense of accomplishment, improvement of family relationship, and meaningful life expectations [26, 27]. It was widely illustrated that negative and positive experiences are both essential to the health of caregivers and the healthcare received by care recipients [12, 28]; therefore, we emphasize both to render a better understanding of overall caregiver experience. Our study demonstrated that despite mild or moderate caregiver burden, caregivers of PG patients present a moderate level of positive aspects. Identifying the predictive factors of caregiver burden and its positive aspects could improve our cognition and strategy of preventing and treating this type of illness. Consequently, the association between the CBI and PAC arouses our interest, as well as their potential predictors.

Based on the results of the generalized linear regression analysis, our study found that the aggregate score of the CBI was related to several demographic factors of the patients and caregivers themselves. First, the length of disease duration is positively associated with the aggregate score of the CBI. A long course of the disease could be the consequence of late presentation, continuous follow-up, multiple surgeries, or even worse, visual acuity, which all apparently exert challenging impacts on the caregivers. Second, compared with caregivers with a bachelor’s degree or above, caregivers with an education background of primary school or below experience greater burden. Another study reported that caregiver education levels were associated with children’s dental caries. As the study shows, if the caregivers are less educated, they may have more difficulty in understanding the disease, and it could take more time for them to learn how to take care of the patients [29]. Further studies should be designed to examine the relationship between caregivers’ education level and their behavior, such as compliance with the doctors’ advice, increased knowledge about PG and other health-related topics, frequency of follow-up, or even their lifestyle. In the present study, two-thirds of the enrolled caregivers are female, half of them are parents with jobs, and more than 80% are caregivers with low household income, which are all significantly related to the caregiver burden. Given that patients with PG are mostly infants and children, it is not surprising that mothers play a more essential role in the daily caregiving of the children than fathers do. Nevertheless, the caregiving stress of the mother especially contributes to the negative effects on the QoL of children with chronic disease [30, 31]. However, we also do not exclude fathers to avoid omitting their voices as partakers in caregiving roles. In addition, despite half of the caregivers being employed, most of their families have low incomes. Due to the chronic disease process and the repeated follow-up requirement, poor families are more vulnerable to bear greater financial difficulties. Prior literature has reported that underprivileged parents were at high risk of having depression and anxiety during child rearing, especially those who lived below the national poverty level [32]. Moreover, several studies have documented that depressed caregivers were more likely to suffer from financial poverty, unemployment, and divorce, which would exacerbate the low quality of healthcare they are able to provide [33, 34].

As our detailed analysis shows, among the five aspects of the CBI, the time-dependence burden shows the highest average score. The time-dependence subscale investigates the time cost of caregivers. Three of five items from this subscale are listed in the top five burdens of the entire CBI assessment. The young ages of the PG patients, long course of disease, low household income, and young age of caregivers are all significantly related to the time-dependent burden. Obviously, younger patients are dependent on their parents, which will occupy a large amount of their caregivers’ time. The natural chronic process of PG requires extended and meticulous nursing and caring, which could bring heavy time pressure on the caregivers. In relation to the age of caregivers, there has been much division among different literature sources. Some observers have found that older caregivers suffered from a greater burden as a result of longtime interactions with the patients and the chronic course of the disease, similar to dementia [35] and schizophrenia [36]. Other observers indicate a reverse relationship between burden and age in caregivers of patients with mental illness [37]. Caregivers of younger children usually lack experience with parental caring, let alone caring for infants or children with illnesses.

The second-highest score is from the developmental burden, which assesses caregivers’ feelings of impediment to their development compared to those of their peers [38]. Decreased personal time limits the progress of career, social life, and even hobbies to some extent. Caregivers with lower educational levels are prone to be affected.

The third-highest score is that of the physical aspects, which describes the feeling of fatigue and damage to the physical health of the caregivers [38]. The physical burden presents as a shortage of self-care and the occurrence of somatic symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and a decline in immunological function. Caring for babies and children usually deprives parents of substantial amounts of sleep, so sleeplessness exerts damage to the physical health of the caregivers. In our present study, the gender and working status of caregivers are both related to their physical burden. This indicates that professional female caregivers were exposed to both physical and mental stress.

Among the 9 items of PAC, the top two highest items are “Enabled you to develop a more positive attitude toward life” from aspects of life expectation and “It makes you feel needed” from those of self-affirmation. It thus appears that when caregivers provide attentive care to their PG children, it could also bring positive feedback to the caregivers themselves, especially the feeling of being needed, which could strengthen their sense of satisfaction and gain. Most of the subjects experienced moderate or high levels of positive feelings during caregiving, which indicated a still-optimistic situation for PG caregivers.

As our present study showed, aggregate scores of the PAC and “outlook on life” subscales were both negatively associated with emotional burden. The emotional burden subscale had the lowest scores in our study. The emotional burden describes the negative feelings of the care receivers due to their unpredictable and bizarre behaviors [15]. This finding suggests that the behavior of PG patients is critical to the positive aspects of caregiving. Obviously, the behavior of PG patients is the most direct reflection of parental caring in family daily life. Some PG patients must use eye drops everyday with or without the help of their caregivers, even more than once. Moreover, due to the poor vision of PG patients, they are unable to perform common sports activities that other healthy children can perform, even attending normal primary school if they are blind. They could bring a feeling of uniqueness, embarrassment, and discomfort to the PG patients as well as their caregivers.

Social burden describes the role conflicts, especially in the family relationships of the caregivers. In relation to other family members or relatives, caring for children with illnesses merits cultural valuation and support from other family members could reverse the depression and strain from caregiving, which indicates that family support and understanding are vital to caregivers’ optimistic expectations of life [38]. Regarding the relationship between caregivers and care recipients, it was reported that the intensity of anxiety and depression was related to the chronicity and severity of disease, which was further related to the quality of life or even the personality of PG children. Therefore, the natural course of the disease and the daily behaviors of PG children will affect the affinity between caregivers and their care recipients [9, 10]. As our analysis showed, caring for PG patients contributes to a relatively low level of social burden. However, no associated predictor was found.

With regard to the research methods, some limitations need to be acknowledged. First, a large sample size is needed to enhance our power to evaluate the predictive factors of caregiver burden and the positive aspects associated with caregiving. In addition, long-term follow-up should be reinforced in future research to detect changes in the caregiving experience. Furthermore, additional dimensions of predictive variables should be evaluated for greater understanding of the experience of caring for PG patients, such as sleep quality, medical compliance, and awareness of disease.

In conclusion, our study indicated that the caregivers of PG patients suffer from burden and stress, especially in time-dependence, physical and development aspects. However, to a certain extent, positive aspects were also found among the caregivers, which serve as optimistic feedback of their psychological status. Therefore, as doctors of PG patients, we should provide appropriate guidance and psychosocial intervention to the caregivers, which is beneficial for the physical and mental health of both the caregivers and the children receiving their care. In addition, we should pay more attention to distinctively vulnerable groups of caregivers, such as employed females with low incomes and low levels of education. Specific strategies should be considered and implemented to prevent or mitigate caregiver burden and to enhance and encourage caregivers’ positive experiences.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Disclosure

The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Jianlong Li for assisting with the statistical analysis and Dr. Jinmiao Li for manuscript formatting and discussion. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81700858).

References

  1. C. L. Koay, D. K. Patel, I. Tajunisah, V. Subrayan, and V. C. Lansingh, “A comparative analysis of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia with low income, middle income and high income countries,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. J. M. Maida, K. Mathers, and C. L. Alley, “Pediatric ophthalmology in the developing world,” Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 403–408, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. R. H. Taylor, J. R. Ainsworth, A. R. Evans, and A. V. Levin, “The epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma: the Toronto experience,” Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 308–315, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. T. Dada, A. Aggarwal, S. J. Bali, M. Wadhwani, S. Tinwala, and R. Sagar, “Caregiver burden assessment in primary congenital glaucoma,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 324–328, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. T. Kajornrattana, P. Sangsupawanich, and A. Yuenyongviwat, “Quality of life among caregivers and growth in children with parent-reported food allergy,” Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. A. Ekim, “OC29—caregiver burden in childhood asthma,” Nursing Children and Young People, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 75, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. I. S. Zenlea, B. Thompson, D. Fierheller et al., “Walking in the shoes of caregivers of children with obesity: supporting caregivers in paediatric weight management,” Clinical Obesity, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 300–306, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. E.-Y. Park and S.-J. Nam, “Time burden of caring and depression among parents of individuals with cerebral palsy,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 1508–1513, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. M. P. Jensen, K. S. Liljenquist, F. Bocell et al., “Life impact of caregiving for severe childhood epilepsy: results of expert panels and caregiver focus groups,” Epilepsy & Behavior, vol. 74, pp. 135–143, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. V. K. Gothwal, S. Bharani, and A. K. Mandal, “Quality of life of caregivers of children with congenital glaucoma: development and validation of a novel questionnaire (CarCGQoL),” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 770–777, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. V. K. Gothwal, S. Bharani, and A. K. Mandal, “Impact of surgery on the quality of life of caregivers of children with congenital glaucoma,” Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1161-1162, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. I. Abdollahpour, S. Nedjat, and Y. Salimi, “Positive aspects of caregiving and caregiver burden: a study of caregivers of patients with dementia,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. D. S. F. Yu, S.-T. Cheng, and J. Wang, “Unravelling positive aspects of caregiving in dementia: an integrative review of research literature,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 79, pp. 1–26, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. C. Las Hayas, E. L. de Arroyabe, and E. Calvete, “Positive aspects of caregiving in Spanish caregivers of individuals with acquired brain injury,” Rehabilitation Psychology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 193–202, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. M. Papadopoulos, N. Cable, J. Rahi, and P. T. Khaw, “The British infantile and childhood glaucoma (BIG) eye study,” Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 4100–4106, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. K.-R. Chou, L. Jiann-Chyun, and H. Chu, “The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the caregiver burden inventory,” Nursing Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 324–331, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. J. Y. M. Siow, A. Chan, T. Østbye, G. H.-L. Cheng, and R. Malhotra, “Validity and reliability of the positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) scale and development of its shorter version (S-PAC) among family caregivers of older adults,” The Gerontologist, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. e75–e84, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. T. C. Chen, P. P. Chen, B. A. Francis et al., “Pediatric glaucoma surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 11, pp. 2107–2115, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. J. Hoenig and M. W. Hamilton, “The schizophrenic patient in the community and his effect on the household,” International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 165–176, 1966. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. S. H. Zarit, K. E. Reever, and J. Bach-Peterson, “Relatives of the impaired elderly: correlates of feelings of burden,” The Gerontologist, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 649–655, 1980. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. L. K. George and L. P. Gwyther, “Caregiver weil-being: a multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults,” The Gerontologist, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 253–259, 1986. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. J. F. Deeken, K. L. Taylor, P. Mangan, K. R. Yabroff, and J. M. Ingham, “Care for the caregivers: a review of self-report instruments developed to measure the burden, needs, and quality of life of informal caregivers,” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 922–953, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. K. Tanco, J. C. Park, A. Cerana, A. Sisson, N. Sobti, and E. Bruera, “A systematic review of instruments assessing dimensions of distress among caregivers of adult and pediatric cancer patients,” Palliative and Supportive Care, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 110–124, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. M. Cañedo-Ayala, D. B. Rice, B. Levis et al., “Factors associated with symptoms of depression among informal caregivers of people with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional study,” Disability and Rehabilitation, pp. 1–6, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. W. Abreu, D. Tolson, G. A. Jackson, and N. Costa, “A cross-sectional study of family caregiver burden and psychological distress linked to frailty and functional dependency of a relative with advanced dementia,” Dementia, Article ID 147130121877384, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. K. Boerner, R. Schulz, and A. Horowitz, “Positive aspects of caregiving and adaptation to bereavement,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 668–675, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. C. A. Cohen, A. Colantonio, and L. Vernich, “Positive aspects of caregiving: rounding out the caregiver experience,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 184–188, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. C. Fekete, H. Tough, J. Siegrist, and M. W. G. Brinkhof, “Health impact of objective burden, subjective burden and positive aspects of caregiving: an observational study among caregivers in Switzerland,” BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 12, Article ID e17369, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. M. Heima, W. Lee, P. Milgrom, and S. Nelson, “Caregiver’s education level and child’s dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study,” Caries Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. M. Mehta, A. Bagga, P. Pande, G. Bajaj, and R. N. Srivastava, “Behavior problems in nephrotic syndrome,” Indian Pediatrics, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1281–1286, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  31. E.-M. Rüth, M. A. Landolt, T. J. Neuhaus, and M. J. Kemper, “Health-related quality of life and psychosocial adjustment in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 778–783, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. K. A. Ertel, J. W. Rich-Edwards, and K. C. Koenen, “Maternal depression in the United States: nationally representative rates and risks,” Journal of Women’s Health, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1609–1617, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. J. Kim-Cohen, A. Caspi, M. Rutter, M. P. Tomas, and T. E. Moffitt, “The caregiving environments provided to children by depressed mothers with or without an antisocial history,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 1009–1018, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. M. Celano, R. Bakeman, O. Gaytan, C. O. Smith, A. Koci, and S. Henderson, “Caregiver depressive symptoms and observed family interaction in low-income children with persistent asthma,” Family Process, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 7–20, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. A. Alonso Babarro, A. Garrido Barral, A. Díaz Ponce, R. Casquero Ruiz, and M. Riera Pastor, “Profile and burden of care in caregivers of patients with dementia included in the ALOIS program,” Atencion Primaria, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 61–66, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  36. A. Caqueo-Urízar and J. Gutiérrez-Maldonado, “Burden of care in families of patients with schizophrenia,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 719–724, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. C. Webb, M. Pfeiffer, K. T. Mueser et al., “Burden and well-being of caregivers for the severely mentally ill: the role of coping style and social support,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 169–180, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  38. V. W. Q. Lou, B. H.-P. Lau, and K. S.-L. Cheung, “Positive aspects of caregiving (PAC): scale validation among Chinese dementia caregivers (CG),” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 299–306, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2019 Yingting Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

698 Views | 269 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.