Table 2: Analysis of categorical preprocedural parameters and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain scores.

ParameterVAS scores (mean ± SD) value

Gender (M vs F)3.4 ± 2.9 vs 3.7 ± 2.00.65
Native (Y vs N)4.4 ± 2.9 vs 3.0 ± 2.20.10
Academic education (Y vs N)3.5 ± 2.2 vs 3.5 ± 2.80.99
Retired (Y vs N)3.4 ± 2.4 vs 3.6 ± 2.70.82
Past injections (Y vs N)3.4 ± 2.2 vs 4.0 ± 3.70.64
Past operation (Y vs N)3.5 ± 2.8 vs 3.5 ± 2.20.99
Preprocedural guidance (Y vs N)3.2 ± 2.6 vs 4.1 ± 2.60.28
Anxiolytic before procedure (Y vs N)3.6 ± 2.5 vs 3.3 ± 3.20.88

M: male; F: female; Y: yes; N: no; vs: versus. Student’s t-test applied.