Implementation of a Postfracture Care Program in a Private Hospital in ColombiaRead the full article
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Vitamin D, Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, and Sex Steroids in Bone Health and Effects of Aging
Bone health of the elderly is a major global health concern, since about 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men suffer from bone loss and fractures, often called osteoporosis, in old age. Bone health is a complex issue affected by multiple hormones and minerals. Among all the hormones involved in bone health, calcitriol (also vitamin D), parathyroid, and sex hormones (especially estrogen) have been discussed in this review paper. We have discussed the metabolism of these hormones and their effects on bone health. Vitamin D can be obtained from diet or formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol found under the skin in the presence of sunlight. The active form, calcitriol, causes dimerization of vitamin D receptor and acts on the bones, intestine, and kidney to regulate the level of calcium in blood. Similarly, parathyroid hormone is secreted when the serum level of calcium is low. It helps regulate the level of blood calcium through calcitriol. Sex hormones regulate bone modeling at an early age and remodeling later in life. Loss of ovarian function and a decrement in the level of production of estrogen are marked by bone loss in elderly women. In the elderly, various changes in the calcium and vitamin D metabolism, such as decrease in the production of vitamin D, decrease in dietary vitamin D, decreased renal production, increased production of excretory products, decrease in the level of VDR, and decreased calcium absorption by the intestines, can lead to bone loss. When the elderly are diagnosed with osteoporosis, medications that directly target bone such as bisphosphonates, RANK ligand inhibitors, estrogen and estrogen analogues, estrogen receptor modulators, and parathyroid hormone receptor agonists are used. Additionally, calcium and vitamin D supplements are prescribed.
Muscle-Bone Interactions in Chinese Men and Women Aged 18–35 Years
To characterize bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength, muscle and fat mass, and muscle strength and power in Chinese women (n = 25) and men (n = 28) classified as in the bone accrual phase (18–25 years) or in the peak bone mass phase (26–35 years). Calcium intakes, physical activity levels, and serum vitamin D were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessed body composition, lumbar spine, and hip areal BMD (aBMD) variables and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) assessed cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone strength. Muscle strength and power were assessed by grip strength, leg press, and vertical jump tests. Calcium, serum vitamin D, and physical activity levels were similar across age and sex groups. Significant sex differences were found for most body composition variables, hip aBMD, tibia variables, and muscle strength and power. Adjusting for height and weight eliminated most of the significant sex differences. Women showed stronger positive correlations between body composition and bone variables (r = 0.44 to 0.78) than men. Also, correlations between muscle strength/power were stronger in women vs. men (r = 0.43 to 0.82). Bone traits were better related to body composition and muscle function in Chinese women compared to Chinese men aged 18 to 35 years, and peak bone mass seems to be achieved by 25 years of age in both Chinese men and women since there were no differences between the two age groups.
Bone Mineral Density and Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Women with Parkinson’s Disease
Osteoporosis and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two important age-related diseases, which have an influence on pain, physical activity, disability, and mortality. The aim of this research was to study the parameters of bone mineral density (BMD), frequency, and 10-year probability of osteoporotic fractures (OFs) in females with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have examined 113 postmenopausal women aged 50–74 years old which were divided into 2 groups (I, control group (CG), n = 53 and II, subjects with PD, n = 60). Bone mineral density of lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal radius, and total body were measured, and quantity and localization of vertebral deformities were performed by the vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Ten-year probability of OFs was assessed by Ukrainian version of FRAX®. It was established that BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal radius, and total body in PD women was reliably lower compared to CG. The frequency of OFs in PD subjects was higher compared to CG (51.7 and 11.3%, respectively) with prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) in women with PD (52.6% among all fractures). 47.4% of the females had combined VFs: 74.2% of VFs were in thoracic part of the spine and 73.7% were wedge ones. Ten-year probability of major OFs and hip fracture were higher in PD women compared to CG with and without BMD measurements. Inclusion of PD in the FRAX calculation increased the requirement of antiosteoporotic treatment from 5 to 28% (without additional examination) and increased the need of additional BMD measurement from 50 to 68%. Anterior/posterior vertebral height ratios (Th8-Th11) measured by VFA in PD females without confirmed vertebral deformities were lower compared to indices of CG. In conclusion, women with PD have lower BMD indices, higher rate of osteoporosis, and risk of future low-energy fractures that should be taken into account in the assessment of their osteoporosis risk and clinical management.
Epidemiology and Direct Medical Cost of Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in Chile
The osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with a high impact on morbidity, mortality, and health expenditure. The Chilean health system is made up of a mixed care system, with the public system called FONASA and the private system called ISAPRE. The people with lower incomes are listed on FONASA and correspond to 80.8% of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the incidence of hip fracture in the Chilean population from the age of 45 years and to estimate the direct medical cost of this disease. The records of the Department of the Health Statistics and Information of the Ministry of Health were used, from which the number of national hospital discharges due to hip fractures was obtained (codes S720, S721, and S722 of the ICD-10), in adults aged 45 years or older, by sex, from 2006 to 2017. The cost of osteoporotic hip fracture treatment in the public health system was obtained from the data of the surgical treatment according to the payment method associated with diagnosis (PAD bonus). A surgical intervention budget was used in a private clinic to calculate the direct cost of osteoporotic hip fracture in the private system. Between 2006 and 2017, the number of hospital discharges due to osteoporotic hip fracture in adults aged 45 years and older has increased progressively, registering 9.583 hospital discharges for this cause in 2017, which corresponds to 50% more than those recorded in 2006, with a 3 : 1 F/M ratio. The mean annual rate of hip fractures is 148.7 per 100,000 inhabitants aged above 45 years. The individual cost of managing an osteoporotic hip fracture in the public system was USD$ 3,919, and USD$ 9,092 in the private health system. The incidence of hip fracture was comparable with data from Southern European countries and from neighboring countries, such as Argentina and Uruguay. Hospitalization cost of hip fracture in Chile was 34 million USD per year. Hip fracture constitutes a serious healthcare problem in Chile, and efforts for the prevention and management of osteoporosis are needed.
Evaluation of the Fracture Liaison Service within the Canadian Healthcare Setting
Previous studies evaluating fracture liaison service (FLS) programs have found them to be cost-effective, efficient, and reduce the risk of fracture. However, few studies have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of these programs. We compared the patient populations of those referred for osteoporosis management by FLS to those referred by primary care physicians (PCP), within the Canadian healthcare system in the province of Ontario. Specifically, we investigated if a referral from FLS is similarly effective as PCP at identifying patients at risk for future osteoporotic fractures and if osteoporosis therapies have been previously initiated. A retrospective chart review of patients assessed by a single Ontario rheumatology practice affiliated with FLS between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, was performed identifying two groups: those referred by FLS within Hamilton and those referred by their PCP for osteoporosis management. Fracture risk of each patient was determined using FRAX. A total of 573 patients (n = 225 (FLS group) and n = 227 (PCP group)) were evaluated. Between the FLS and PCP groups, there were no significant differences in the absolute 10-year risk of a major osteoporotic fracture (15.6% (SD = 10.2) vs 15.3% (SD = 10.3)) and 10-year risk of hip fracture (4.7% (SD = 8.3) vs 4.7% (SD = 6.8)), respectively. 10.7% of patients referred by FLS and 40.5% of patients referred by their PCP were on osteoporosis medication prior to fracture. Our study suggests that referral from FLS is similarly effective as PCP at identifying patients at risk for future osteoporotic fractures, and clinically effective at identifying the care gap with the previous use of targeted osteoporosis therapies from referral from PCP being low and much lower in those referred by FLS. Interventional programs such as FLS can help close the treatment gap by providing appropriate care to patients that were not previously identified to be at risk for fracture by their primary care physician and initiate proper medical management.
Correlation between Urine N-Terminal Telopeptide and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Parameters: A Preliminary Study
N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) is a bone resorption marker that is commonly referenced in clinical practice. Bone remodeling is also associated with changes in mineral components. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is utilized in the assessment of bone material properties and some parameters are reported to have associations with bone remodeling. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the relationship between uNTX levels and FTIR parameters, utilizing prospectively collected study data for patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery. Bone specimens were taken from iliac crest (IC) and vertebrae (V). Cortical (C) and trabecular (T) bones were separately analyzed. 22 patients (mean age 60.0 years (35.9–73.3), male : female 9 : 13) were included in the final analysis. Women showed significantly higher uNTX levels (male : female, median [range] 21.0 [11.0–39.0] : 36.0 [15.0–74.0] nM·BCE/mM, ). Among women, a significant positive correlation was observed between uNTX and mineral-to-matrix ratio in IC-C. Among men, uNTX demonstrated significant negative correlation with collagen crosslinks (XLR: ratio of mature to immature collagen crosslinks) in IC-C, V-T, and V-C. In addition, uNTX was positively correlated with acid phosphate substitution (HPO4, a parameter of new bone formation) in IC-C, IC-T, and V-C. After age adjustment, HPO4 in IC-T and V-C among men showed significant positive associations with uNTX (IC-T: , R2 = 0.544; V-C: , R2 = 0.672). We found associations between FTIR parameters and uNTX in men, but not in women. The correlations between uNTX and FTIR parameters in men might suggest a better balance of bone breakdown (uNTX) and new bone formation (FTIR parameters: XLR, HPO4) than in women.