Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Osteoporosis and Correlates of Perceived High Risk among People Living in Two Main Districts of LebanonRead the full article
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A Radiological Assessment of the Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Male Patients Seen in a South African Hospital: A Retrospective Analysis
Developing countries are predicted to bear the burden of osteoporosis in the coming decades. The prevalence of osteoporosis in South African men is unknown, but is thought to be rare. Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis can be performed using quantitative computed tomography (CT) obtained for various clinical indications. We assessed the frequency of osteoporosis in male patients using quantitative computed tomography (CT) obtained for various clinical indications. Data were collected from abdominal and spinal CT scans performed at the radiology department of a provincial tertiary hospital between January 2019 and January 2021. The CT examinations were derived from 507 male patients (mean age, 45±15 years; 83% Black, 0.8% Coloured, 4.1% Indian and 11.2% White). In the CT scans, the region of interest was placed manually at the axial cross-sections of L1 and L3 vertebrae. Using densitometry, we calculated average bone mass density and T and Z scores. We diagnosed osteoporosis in 18.5% (n = 94) of our patients. Only 7.9% of patients younger than 50 had osteoporosis, while 35.9% of patients older than 50 years showed signs of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis was more common amongst White male patients (45.6%) and least common in Black male patients (14.4%). Indian patients had the highest prevalence of osteopenia (42.9%). We successfully used CT scans, obtained for various conditions, to identify large numbers of patients with low bone mineral density (BMD). The prevalence of osteoporosis in this sample is similar to rates reported elsewhere in Africa. Asymptomatic patients at risk of developing insufficiency fractures can be diagnosed and managed early using CT scans, thus preventing unnecessary admissions and reducing osteoporosis-related morbidity and mortality.
Bone Mineral Density and Trabecular Bone Score in Predicting Vertebral Fractures in Male Employees of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
Purpose. Osteoporotic VF is frequently asymptomatic and affects not only women but also men. Identifying patients at risk is essential for early management and prevention. BMD and the TBS are measurements of bone strength and trabecular microarchitecture, respectively. Their role in VF prediction in men is less well-studied. We determined the BMD and TBS predictive ability for osteoporotic VF in men. Methods. A total of 115 male participants of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) cohorts without a history of VF who completed the baseline BMD and TBS measurements in 2012 and a thoracolumbar spine radiograph in 2017 were recruited. The VF was assessed using the Genant semiquantitative method. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the fracture. The area under the receiving operator curve (AUC) was analyzed to define VF predictive ability. Results. Forty subjects (34.78%) had VFs. The unadjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval) for VF for one standard deviation decrease in the TBS and low TBS were 1.319 (1.157–1.506) and 2.347 (1.496–3.682), respectively, and remained significant after BMD and age adjustment. For VF prediction, combined models had a greater AUC than models predicted from a single variable. The use of low TBS, femoral neck BMD, and age provided the best AUC (0.693). Conclusion. BMD and the TBS could predict osteoporotic VF in male EGAT employees. The use of both BMD and the TBS in the VF prediction process improved predictive ability.
Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density, Serum Osteocalcin, and Osteopontin Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, with/without Osteoporosis
Objective. Osteoporosis (OP) is a worldwide ailment; we aim to establish new biomarkers in diagnosis by determining the levels of serum osteocalcin and osteopontin along with bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar T-score, in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without OP. Methods. This observational study included 160 postmenopausal women who were an attendee at outpatient clinics in Al-Hussein Hospital, Thi-Qar province; subdivided into 3 groups based on their T-score testing: Group I (n = 40) comprised postmenopausal women without T2DM as controls, Group II (n = 60) comprised postmenopausal women with T2DM but without OP, and Group III (n = 60) comprised postmenopausal women with T2DM with OP. The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD (total body, lumbar spine, and femoral) and T-score for lumbar spine and femoral. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), osteocalcin, and osteopontin levels were assessed in all three groups. Results. Compared with controls, Group III demonstrated significantly lower BMD (total body, lumbar spine, and femoral), T-score for lumbar spine and femoral, serum osteocalcin, and osteopontin levels than Group II and Group I (). FBG and HbA1c levels were significantly higher in Group III than in Groups I and II (). A negative correlation was proved between HbA1c levels with BMD, osteocalcin levels, and osteopontin levels in the three groups. Conclusions. Iraqi postmenopausal women with T2DM had a significantly lower bone mineral density, serum osteocalcin, and osteopontin levels. These results may serve as adjuvants in screening for OP, particularly among diabetic patients.
Characteristics Associated with Acute-Phase Response following First Zoledronic Acid Infusion in Brazilian Population with Osteoporosis
We aimed to evaluate characteristics associated with acute-phase response (APR) following first zoledronic acid infusion in a Brazilian cohort. This retrospective cohort study enrolled all adults with osteoporosis who underwent a first zoledronic acid infusion at our centre between June 2015 and June 2019. Clinical demographics (age, sex, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, and previous oral bisphosphonate use) and laboratory data (calcium, parathyroid hormone, renal function, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxy-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTX], both before and after infusion) were compared between patients with and without APR. We evaluated association magnitude between the presence of APR and clinical variables through logistic regression. This study enrolled 400 patients (women, 80%). APR was observed in 24.5% (n = 98) of patients. The mean symptom duration in days was 3.5 ± 2.8. Patients with APR were younger (67 ± 12 vs. 71 ± 11 years; ), used oral bisphosphonates less frequently (34% × 50%; ), and had greater baseline CTX (0.535 ng/mL [0.375, 0.697] × 0.430 [0.249, 0.681]; ) and ΔCTX (−69 [−76; −50] × −54 [−72; −23]; ) than those without APR. The other variables were similar between the groups. Only ΔCTX was associated (OR, 0.62; 95% CI 0.41–0.98) with APR after accounting for age and bisphosphonate use. APR occurred in 24.5% of the cohort. Younger age and absence of prior oral bisphosphonate use were associated with APR following first zoledronic acid infusion. APR was associated with ΔCTX (but no other variables) after adjusting for these factors.
Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis and Risk Factors for New Vertebral Fractures in Female Patients with Autoimmune Diseases
We aimed to evaluate the compliance of physicians with the 2014 guidelines of the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research, for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) and to investigate the risk of fracture and other associated risk factors in bisphosphonate-treated patients. We evaluated 90 female patients with nonrheumatoid arthritis autoimmune diseases who received long-term GC treatment (≥12 months). Clinical characteristics, including age, GC dose, history of fragility fractures, osteoporosis treatments, as well as lumbar (L2–L4) and femoral neck bone mineral density, were collected from the patients’ medical charts. New vertebral fractures during the study period were evaluated using thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs by quantitative measurements. The GIO score was calculated for each patient according to 2014 Japanese guidelines. Of the 90 patients evaluated, 60 were indicated for osteoporosis treatment, based on the 2014 guidelines of Japan. We observed a high compliance rate, with 93% of patients receiving osteoporosis treatment and 50% receiving bisphosphonates. In total, eight patients developed new vertebral fractures during the study, six of whom received bisphosphonates. In bisphosphonate-treated patients, fracture risk was associated with GC treatment and a lack of active vitamin D3 supplementation. The compliance rate with the updated Japanese 2014 guidelines at our institution was very high. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings that suggest that active vitamin D3 should be used in combination with bisphosphonates for the treatment of GIO to reduce fracture risk.
Site-Specific Volumetric Skeletal Changes in Women with a Distal Forearm Fracture
Purpose. To assess site-specific volumetric bone and muscle changes, as well as demographic and biochemical changes, in postmenopausal women with a low-energy distal forearm fracture. Methods. In a cross-sectional case-control study, postmenopausal women with a distal forearm fracture were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. In total, 203 postmenopausal women (104 cases and 99 controls), with a mean age of 65 years, were included. Measurements included peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as blood sampling and questionnaires. Results. Forearm trabecular volumetric BMD and total BMD assessed with pQCT were significantly lower in fracture cases compared to controls (). Significantly higher cross-sectional area, lower cortical BMD, and lower cortical thickness were seen in women with fracture (, , and , respectively). Postmenopausal women with fracture had significantly lower hip and spine areal BMD assessed with DXA (). Activity level was higher and a history of falling was more frequent in women with fracture ( and , respectively). Vertebral fracture was observed in 24 women (22%) with a distal forearm fracture. Muscle area, muscle density, PTH, and 25OHD did not differ between fracture cases and controls. Conclusion. A distal forearm fracture was associated with site-specific and central bone changes. Postmenopausal women with fracture had a larger bone area in combination with a thinner cortex and lower site-specific total BMD. In addition, women with fracture had a higher activity level, an increased occurrence of previous fall accidents, and a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Forearm muscle composition, PTH, and 25OHD were not associated with forearm fracture. Fracture preventive measures following a low-energy distal forearm fracture seem beneficial.