Journal of Osteoporosis
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Muscle-Bone Interactions in Chinese Men and Women Aged 18–35 Years

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Journal of Osteoporosis provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working on the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases.

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Research Article

Bone Mineral Density and Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Women with Parkinson’s Disease

Osteoporosis and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two important age-related diseases, which have an influence on pain, physical activity, disability, and mortality. The aim of this research was to study the parameters of bone mineral density (BMD), frequency, and 10-year probability of osteoporotic fractures (OFs) in females with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have examined 113 postmenopausal women aged 50–74 years old which were divided into 2 groups (I, control group (CG), n = 53 and II, subjects with PD, n = 60). Bone mineral density of lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal radius, and total body were measured, and quantity and localization of vertebral deformities were performed by the vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Ten-year probability of OFs was assessed by Ukrainian version of FRAX®. It was established that BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal radius, and total body in PD women was reliably lower compared to CG. The frequency of OFs in PD subjects was higher compared to CG (51.7 and 11.3%, respectively) with prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) in women with PD (52.6% among all fractures). 47.4% of the females had combined VFs: 74.2% of VFs were in thoracic part of the spine and 73.7% were wedge ones. Ten-year probability of major OFs and hip fracture were higher in PD women compared to CG with and without BMD measurements. Inclusion of PD in the FRAX calculation increased the requirement of antiosteoporotic treatment from 5 to 28% (without additional examination) and increased the need of additional BMD measurement from 50 to 68%. Anterior/posterior vertebral height ratios (Th8-Th11) measured by VFA in PD females without confirmed vertebral deformities were lower compared to indices of CG. In conclusion, women with PD have lower BMD indices, higher rate of osteoporosis, and risk of future low-energy fractures that should be taken into account in the assessment of their osteoporosis risk and clinical management.

Research Article

Epidemiology and Direct Medical Cost of Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in Chile

The osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with a high impact on morbidity, mortality, and health expenditure. The Chilean health system is made up of a mixed care system, with the public system called FONASA and the private system called ISAPRE. The people with lower incomes are listed on FONASA and correspond to 80.8% of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the incidence of hip fracture in the Chilean population from the age of 45 years and to estimate the direct medical cost of this disease. The records of the Department of the Health Statistics and Information of the Ministry of Health were used, from which the number of national hospital discharges due to hip fractures was obtained (codes S720, S721, and S722 of the ICD-10), in adults aged 45 years or older, by sex, from 2006 to 2017. The cost of osteoporotic hip fracture treatment in the public health system was obtained from the data of the surgical treatment according to the payment method associated with diagnosis (PAD bonus). A surgical intervention budget was used in a private clinic to calculate the direct cost of osteoporotic hip fracture in the private system. Between 2006 and 2017, the number of hospital discharges due to osteoporotic hip fracture in adults aged 45 years and older has increased progressively, registering 9.583 hospital discharges for this cause in 2017, which corresponds to 50% more than those recorded in 2006, with a 3 : 1 F/M ratio. The mean annual rate of hip fractures is 148.7 per 100,000 inhabitants aged above 45 years. The individual cost of managing an osteoporotic hip fracture in the public system was USD$ 3,919, and USD$ 9,092 in the private health system. The incidence of hip fracture was comparable with data from Southern European countries and from neighboring countries, such as Argentina and Uruguay. Hospitalization cost of hip fracture in Chile was 34 million USD per year. Hip fracture constitutes a serious healthcare problem in Chile, and efforts for the prevention and management of osteoporosis are needed.

Research Article

Evaluation of the Fracture Liaison Service within the Canadian Healthcare Setting

Previous studies evaluating fracture liaison service (FLS) programs have found them to be cost-effective, efficient, and reduce the risk of fracture. However, few studies have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of these programs. We compared the patient populations of those referred for osteoporosis management by FLS to those referred by primary care physicians (PCP), within the Canadian healthcare system in the province of Ontario. Specifically, we investigated if a referral from FLS is similarly effective as PCP at identifying patients at risk for future osteoporotic fractures and if osteoporosis therapies have been previously initiated. A retrospective chart review of patients assessed by a single Ontario rheumatology practice affiliated with FLS between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, was performed identifying two groups: those referred by FLS within Hamilton and those referred by their PCP for osteoporosis management. Fracture risk of each patient was determined using FRAX. A total of 573 patients (n = 225 (FLS group) and n = 227 (PCP group)) were evaluated. Between the FLS and PCP groups, there were no significant differences in the absolute 10-year risk of a major osteoporotic fracture (15.6% (SD = 10.2) vs 15.3% (SD = 10.3)) and 10-year risk of hip fracture (4.7% (SD = 8.3) vs 4.7% (SD = 6.8)), respectively. 10.7% of patients referred by FLS and 40.5% of patients referred by their PCP were on osteoporosis medication prior to fracture. Our study suggests that referral from FLS is similarly effective as PCP at identifying patients at risk for future osteoporotic fractures, and clinically effective at identifying the care gap with the previous use of targeted osteoporosis therapies from referral from PCP being low and much lower in those referred by FLS. Interventional programs such as FLS can help close the treatment gap by providing appropriate care to patients that were not previously identified to be at risk for fracture by their primary care physician and initiate proper medical management.

Research Article

Correlation between Urine N-Terminal Telopeptide and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Parameters: A Preliminary Study

N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) is a bone resorption marker that is commonly referenced in clinical practice. Bone remodeling is also associated with changes in mineral components. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is utilized in the assessment of bone material properties and some parameters are reported to have associations with bone remodeling. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the relationship between uNTX levels and FTIR parameters, utilizing prospectively collected study data for patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery. Bone specimens were taken from iliac crest (IC) and vertebrae (V). Cortical (C) and trabecular (T) bones were separately analyzed. 22 patients (mean age 60.0 years (35.9–73.3), male : female 9 : 13) were included in the final analysis. Women showed significantly higher uNTX levels (male : female, median [range] 21.0 [11.0–39.0] : 36.0 [15.0–74.0] nM·BCE/mM, ). Among women, a significant positive correlation was observed between uNTX and mineral-to-matrix ratio in IC-C. Among men, uNTX demonstrated significant negative correlation with collagen crosslinks (XLR: ratio of mature to immature collagen crosslinks) in IC-C, V-T, and V-C. In addition, uNTX was positively correlated with acid phosphate substitution (HPO4, a parameter of new bone formation) in IC-C, IC-T, and V-C. After age adjustment, HPO4 in IC-T and V-C among men showed significant positive associations with uNTX (IC-T: , R2 = 0.544; V-C: , R2 = 0.672). We found associations between FTIR parameters and uNTX in men, but not in women. The correlations between uNTX and FTIR parameters in men might suggest a better balance of bone breakdown (uNTX) and new bone formation (FTIR parameters: XLR, HPO4) than in women.

Review Article

Vitamin K and Bone Health: A Review on the Effects of Vitamin K Deficiency and Supplementation and the Effect of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants on Different Bone Parameters

Although known for its importance in the coagulation cascade, vitamin K has other functions. It is an essential vitamin for bone health, taking part in the carboxylation of many bone-related proteins, regulating genetic transcription of osteoblastic markers, and regulating bone reabsorption. Vitamin K deficiency is not uncommon, as deposits are scarce and dependent upon dietary supplementation and absorption. Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, which are prescribed to many patients, also induce vitamin K deficiency. Most studies find that low serum K1 concentrations, high levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), and low dietary intake of both K1 and K2 are associated with a higher risk of fracture and lower BMD. Studies exploring the relationship between vitamin K supplementation and fracture risk also find that the risk of fracture is reduced with supplements, but high quality studies designed to evaluate fracture as its primary endpoint are needed. The reduction in risk of fracture with the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants instead of warfarin is also of interest although once again, the available evidence offers disparate results. The scarce and limited evidence, including low quality studies reaching disparate conclusions, makes it impossible to extract solid conclusions on this topic, especially concerning the use of vitamin K supplements.

Research Article

The Assessment of the Supply of Calcium and Vitamin D in the Diet of Women Regularly Practicing Sport

Introduction. The appropriate intake of calcium and vitamin D in women’s diet is significant for a proper maintenance of the skeletal system. Research Aim. The aim of the research was to assess the calcium and vitamin D supply in a diet among women regularly practicing sport. Methodology. The research was completed by 593 women at the age of 18–50 (median 25) who played sports regularly (at least 2 times a week). To assess the calcium and vitamin D intake, short Food Frequency Questionnaires for calcium and vitamin D (VIDEO-FFQ) were used. The examined group was provided with the questionnaires via social media. To assess intake levels, the authors applied the group-based cutoff point method (calcium norm was EAR 800 mg/day; vitamin D norm was AI 15 μg/day). Results. The median of calcium and vitamin D intake in a diet was 502 mg/day and 5.2 μg/day, respectively (Q25 and Q75 for calcium was 387 mg/day and 627 mg/day, respectively, and for vitamin D was 3.4 μg/day and 8.2 μg/day, respectively). In relation to the EAR norm for calcium and AI norm for vitamin D, 92.0% of the examined participants in a group demonstrated lower than recommended calcium intake levels and 97.3% showed lower than recommended vitamin D intake levels. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was used by 13.1% (in this subgroup, 11.5% of the examined group members did not need it) and 56.8% of the examined women (in this subgroup, 2.4% of the examined group did not need it), respectively. After including the calcium and vitamin D intake, the supply median for the whole group was 535 mg/day and 28.8 μg/day, respectively (Q25 and Q75 for calcium was 402 mg/day and 671 mg/day, and for vitamin D was 6.3 µg/day and 55.7 μg/day, respectively); 87.5% of the examined participants did not meet the EAR norms for calcium and 42.0% did not meet the AI norm for vitamin D. Among the women supplementing calcium, 58.9% did not reach the reference intake value; however, all women supplementing vitamin D fulfilled the expected nutritional need. Conclusions. It is important to educate women about the necessity to provide the body with proper calcium and vitamin D intake levels in a diet in order to avoid health problems resulting from the deficit of the nutrients.

Journal of Osteoporosis
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CiteScore1.690
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