Journal of Osteoporosis / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

Table 1

Characteristics of the study sample (n = 2126).

Age group (years)
3040 + 4559–60

Menn = 246an = 396an = 229a
Body weight (kg)82.7 (12.4)b83.5 (13.1)82.6 (12.3)
Height (cm)180.2 (7.5)178.1 (11.0)175.7 (12.6)
BMD (g/cm2)0.57 (0.04) 0.56 (0.05)0.53 (0.06)
Dietary Indexc0.38 (0.20)0.32 (0.19)0.25 (0.14)
 (i) Colas2.20 (1.05)1.90 (1.01)1.55 (0.92)
 (ii) Non-colas1.84 (0.74)1.65 (0.87)1.45 (0.73)
 (iii) Fruit/berries3.38 (1.15)3.51 (1.22)3.78 (1.14)
 (iv) Cooked vegetables2.81 (0.99)3.10 (0.94)3.51 (0.94)
 (v) Raw vegetables3.06 (0.96)3.19 (1.02)3.32 (1.09)
 (vi) Fruit juice2.30 (0.96)2.10 (0.92)2.08 (0.89)
Education (years)15 (3)14 (4)13 (4)
Daily smokers (%)26.834.7 27.0
Use of alcohol 1 to 7
 Times per week (%)55.957.465.2
PA (%)d
 (i) No activity6.09.68.2
 (ii) <1 h/wk12.014.111.4
 (iii) 1-2 h/wk29.626.625.4
 (iv) ≥3h/wk52.449.755.0

Women n = 212an = 415an = 628a
Body weight (kg)67.8 (13.0)b68.3 (11.8)69.9 (12.3)
Height (cm)165.8 (16.3)165.2 (12.6)164.9 (8.6)
BMD (g/cm2)0.46 (0.04) 0.46 (0.05)0.43 (0.06)
Dietary Indexc0.28 (0.13) 0.25 (0.13)0.21 (0.10)
 (i) Colas1.86 ( 0.86)1.63 (0.91)1.31 (0.69)
 (ii) Non-colas1.57 (0.66)1.44 (0.67)1.30 (0.58)
 (iii) Fruit/berries4.04 (1.20)4.03 (1.19)4.36 (1.14)
 (iv) Cooked vegetables3.03 (0.96)3.26 (1.00)3.59 (0.90)
 (v) Raw vegetables3.50 (0.99)3.62 (1.04)3.46 (1.00)
 (vi) Fruit juice2.35 (0.88)2.06 (0.83)1.97 (0.89)
Education (years)16 (4)14 (4)12 (4)
Daily smokers (%)22.432.023.1
Use of alcohol 1 to 7
 Times per week (%)31.857.454.9
PA (%)d
 (i) No activity3.47.54.9
 (ii) < 1 h/wk10.38.710.0
 (iii) 1-2 h/wk20.631.134.2
 (iv) >3 h/wk65.752.756.0

aThe number may vary slightly due to missing data.
bMean values, SD in parentheses.
cSum of intake frequency estimates of 2 diet items (colas and non-cola soft drinks) divided by the sum of intake estimates of 4 items (fruit/berries, cooked vegetables, raw vegetables/salads, and fruit juice). There were 5 response alternatives for beverages and 6 for the food items (see Section 2); mean intake estimate of each index component was calculated as the mean of all levels, neglecting the variations in unit (rarely/never, times per month, week or day; see Section 2.
dLeisure time physical activity, % of subjects.
BMD = distal forearm bone mineral density (g/cm2).