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Journal of Osteoporosis
Volume 2013, Article ID 397814, 8 pages
Research Article

A Study of Bone Mineral Density and Its Determinants in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Departmnent of Endocrinology, Topiwala National Medical College & BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai 400008, India

Received 9 November 2012; Revised 18 January 2013; Accepted 21 February 2013

Academic Editor: Harri Sievänen

Copyright © 2013 Ameya Joshi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been inconsistently associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. 86 consecutive T1DM cases and 140 unrelated age and sex matched healthy nondiabetic controls were included in the study. After history and examination, BMD and body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, albumin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, 25 (OH) vitamin D3, intact parathormone (PTH) levels (both cases and controls) and HbA1c, antimicrosomal and IgA tissue transglutaminase (IgA TTG) antibodies, cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) (cases only). T1DM cases had a lower BMD as compared to controls at both total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) ( ). Patients with celiac autoimmunity (CA) had significantly, lower BMD as compared to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched T1DM controls. Linear regression analysis showed that low BMD in T1DM patients was associated with poor glycaemic control, lower IGF-1 levels, less physical activity (in total population as well as in male and female subgroups), and lower body fat percentage (in females) and higher alkaline phosphatase level (in males) ( ).