Table 4: Differences in bone mineral density scores in T1DM subjects and age, sex, and body mass index matched controls at lumbar spine (L2–L4) (expressed as mean ± SD).

BMD Score T1DMControlP value

Lumbar spine <0.01
Males (53/100) 0.02
 <20 (5/8) 0.19
 20–30 (37/72) 0.02
 >30 (11/20) 0.33
Females (22/40) <0.01
 <20 (5/8) 0.21
 20–30 (7/12) 0.14
 >30 (10/20) 0.21

BMD: bone mineral density; T1DM: type 1 diabetes mellitus.
The numbers in brackets indicate the number of subjects in each subgroup cases and controls. For example, males (53/100) to be read as 53 T1DM cases and 100 healthy controls were in this group.