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Journal of Osteoporosis
Volume 2016, Article ID 7030272, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7030272
Clinical Study

Bone Strength and Arterial Stiffness Impact on Cardiovascular Mortality in a General Population

1JZU Clinical Hospital “Dr. Trifun Panovski”, Department of Internal Medicine, 7000 Bitola, Macedonia
2University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius University” in Skopje, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
3University Clinic of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius University” in Skopje, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia

Received 31 October 2015; Revised 6 February 2016; Accepted 14 February 2016

Academic Editor: Merry Jo Oursler

Copyright © 2016 Petar Avramovski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteoporosis and increased arterial stiffness independently have been found to be associated with higher cardiovascular events rates in the general population (GP). We examined 558 patients from GP by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements at baseline, with 36-month follow-up period. DXA assessed bone mineral density of femoral neck (BMD FN) and lumbar spine (BMD LS). Carotid-femoral PWV was assessed by pulsed-Doppler. The aim of our study is to find correlation between bone strength and arterial stiffness and their impact on cardiovascular mortality in GP. The mean ± SD of BMD FN, BMD LS, and PWV was  g/cm2,  g/cm2, and  m/s. In multiple regression analysis we found BMD FN (βst , ), hypertension (βst = 1.7340, ), and diabetes (, ). With Cox-regression analysis, after 17 cardiovascular events, the significant covariates retained by the backward model were BMD FN (, ) and PWV (, ). The cut-off values were PWV = 9.4 m/s, BMD FN = 0.783 g/cm2, and BMD LS = 0.992 g/cm2. The results for BMD FN and PWV hazard ratio risk were 1.116 and 1.297, respectively. BMD FN as a measure of bone strength and PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in GP.