Is Unfavourable Cervix prior to Labor Induction Risk for Adverse Obstetrical Outcome in Time of Universal Ripening Agents Usage? Single Center Retrospective Observational StudyRead the full article
Journal of Pregnancy publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. Topics include biomedical aspects of pregnancy labour, maternal health and breastfeeding.
Journal of Pregnancy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Completion and Factors Associated with Maternity Continuum of Care among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Last One Year in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Ethiopia still suffers high levels of neonatal and maternal mortality, so the maternity continuum of care is a continuous framework for the delivery of maternal care from pregnancy to the postnatal period. Skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period is an important intervention in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. But in Ethiopia, there are limited studies on the completion of the maternity continuum of care, so this study will help to suggest interventions in order to reduce the dropout of the maternity continuum of care. Objective. To assess the completion of the maternity continuum of care and factors associated with it among mothers who gave birth in the last one year in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia. Method and Materials. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 25 to March 10, 2019, on 651 women who gave birth in the last one year. The data were collected by a face-to-face interview through pretested and structured questionnaires. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Variables with a value < 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as statistically significant associated factors. Results. This study revealed that about 45% (95% CI: 40.9%, 48.8%) of respondents completed the continuum of care. Women with secondary education (, 95% CI: 2.26, 16.6), women whose occupation is farming (, 95%, CI: 0.1, 0.32), women who have autonomy in health care decision (, 95% CI: 2.26, 7.2), women who have exposure to media (, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.27), women with wanted pregnancies (, 95% CI: 1.87, 5.9), para five and above women (, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.3), and women whose husbands are employed (, 95% CI: 1.16, 21.2) were significantly associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Conclusions and Recommendation. This study showed that less than half of the participants had achieved the continuum of care and education level, and both respondents and their husband’s occupation, parity, autonomy in health care decision, exposure to the mass media, and wantedness of pregnancy were associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care; therefore, working on enhancing the capacity of women’s autonomy in health care and decision-making and preventing unintended pregnancy helps to improve the completion of the maternity continuum of care.
Magnitude of Episiotomy and Associated Factors among Mothers Who Give Birth in Arba Minch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: Observation-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Episiotomy is the most common obstetric procedure, performed when the clinical circumstances place the patient at a high risk of high-degree laceration. However, episiotomy should be done with judicious indication to lower perineal laceration with fewer complications. Despite its adverse effects, the magnitude of episiotomy is increasing due to different factors. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the recent magnitude of episiotomy and at identifying associated factors among women who gave delivery in Arba Minch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 15, 2018, to January 30, 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data. This was supplemented with a review of the labor and delivery records. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the magnitude of episiotomy. value ≤ 0.05 was used to determine the level of statistically significant variables. Results. The magnitude of episiotomy was found to be 272 (68.0%) with . Women who attended secondary education [, ], women who attended college and above [, ], [, ], primipara [, ], being housewife occupants [, ], married women [, ], and [, ] were independent variables found to have significant association with episiotomy. Conclusion. The magnitude of episiotomy was 68.0% which is higher than the recommended practice by WHO (10%). The study participants’ occupational status, marital status, educational status, parity, birth weight, and BMI were significantly associated with the magnitude of episiotomy in the study area. Therefore, to reduce the rate of episiotomy, it is better to have periodic training for birth attendants regarding the indication of episiotomy.
Determinants of the Continuum of Maternal Healthcare Services in Northwest Ethiopia: Findings from the Primary Health Care Project
Background. The maternity continuum of care is the continuity of maternal healthcare services that a woman uses, which includes antenatal care (ANC 4+), skill birth attendant (SBA), and postnatal care (PNC) within 48 hours of delivery. It is one of the essential strategies for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with the completion of a continuum of maternal healthcare services among mothers who gave birth in the past five years. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 01 to June 29, 2019, among 565 randomly selected mothers who gave birth in five years before the study in primary healthcare project implementation districts of north Gondar zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed, and in the multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a value of less than 0.05 were used to identify the associated factors with completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services. Results. The study revealed that the overall completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was 21.60% (95% CI: 18.20, 24.90). Women who were able to read and write (AOR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.22, 6.04), using car/motorcycle as a means of transportation to get the health facility (AOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 2.29, 9.50), travel time less than an hour to get the health facility (AOR: 4.98, 95% CI: 2.97, 8.38), being satisfied with the service delivery (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.11), and getting health education on maternal healthcare services in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.52, 5.05) were factors associated with the completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services. Conclusions. The completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was relatively low, indicating that women were not getting the likely health benefit from the present health services. Therefore, interventions should focus on increasing women’s awareness, improving the availability of services at nearby health facilities, and improving service delivery by considering women’s preferences and needs to increase their satisfaction are essential to increase the completion of maternal healthcare services.
Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding of Infants under Six Months among Cambodian Mothers
Introduction. Practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in an infant’s first six months of life is recommended by the World Health Organization because of its proven effectiveness as a method to support the infant’s short- and long-term physical and cognitive development. However, many countries, including Cambodia, face contextually driven challenges in meeting this optimum standard of breastfeeding. The recent declining EBF rate in Cambodia is a concerning indicator of the impact of these challenges. Methods. We used existing data from the 2014 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) to analyze 717 Cambodian mother-infant pairs. CDHS 2014 used a two-stage stratified cluster sampling approach to select samples. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of EBF, taking into account the sampling weight in the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and significance level was considered at value < 0.05. Results. Our findings indicate that among mothers with infants under six months, EBF was more likely if they resided rurally (; 95% CI 1.23-4.23) and if they delivered at a public hospital (; 95% CI 1.28-5.47). On the other hand, mothers of middle wealth index practiced EBF less than mothers of low wealth index (; 95% CI 0.34-0.99). And as expected, our analysis confirmed that the older the infants grew, the less likely they were to be exclusively breastfed than those younger than one month old (2-3 months: ; 95% CI 0.26-0.92; 4-5 months: ; 95% CI 0.15-0.43). Conclusion. The findings emphasize the need to address these determinants adequately by appropriate interventions to halt the declining trend of EBF practice. We recommend a multifaceted approach to improve EBF rates in Cambodia. Advocacy around EBF at public hospitals should continue, and private hospital staff should receive training to provide EBF counselling and support to mothers.
Knowledge of and Adherence to Anaemia Prevention Strategies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Facilities in Juaboso District in Western-North Region, Ghana
Background. Anaemia in pregnancy is a major problem in both developed and developing countries. The commonest source of anaemia is nutritional deficiency of iron with evidence suggesting that up to 90% of maternal anaemia may be due to inadequate consumption of dietary iron; however, there are other causes which include worm infestation, HIV infection, and genetic disorders. There are some implemented approaches in Ghana including education and awareness creation, nutritional supplements, and control and prevention of parasitic infections among others to prevent and control anaemia in pregnancy. This study assessed pregnant women adherence to Ghana’s anaemia prevention strategies being implemented in the Juaboso District. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional data on knowledge of and adherence to anaemia prevention strategies among pregnant women was collected. Pearson’s chi-square and logistic regression models were used to assessed associations between predictor and outcome variables. A value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Findings. About 13.5% of the pregnant women had high knowledge on anaemia, while 58.4% and 28.1% had moderate and low knowledge, respectively. Less than half (39.1%) of the women adhered to anaemia prevention strategies. There were significant associations between knowledge of anaemia and where pregnant woman resides in the district (AOR: 2.04, 95% CI: 2.16-9.83, ), woman’s educational (AOR: 10.43, 95% CI: 6.14-51.63, ), and occupational status (AOR: 15.14, 95% CI: 13.57-18.43, ). Again, there were significant associations between adherence to anaemia prevention strategies and the woman’s ethnicity (AOR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.04-0.92, ) and her knowledge of anaemia (AOR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.32-7.93, ). Conclusions. Pregnant women’s knowledge of anaemia and adherence to anaemia prevention strategies are not encouraging. However, anaemia in pregnancy and its consequences could be devastating to all stakeholders if actions are not taken to reduce the phenomenon. Therefore, we recommend that more education and sensitisation programs including good nutritional practices in the diet of pregnant women be promoted to increase awareness and adherence to anaemia prevention strategies among pregnant women in the Juaboso District.
Measles and Pregnancy: Immunity and Immunization—What Can Be Learned from Observing Complications during an Epidemic Year
Measles is a highly contagious airborne disease. Unvaccinated pregnant women are not only at risk of infection but also at risk of severe pregnancy complications. As measles causes a dysregulation of the entire immune system, we describe immunological variations and how immune response mechanisms can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated data during the measles outbreak reported in the province of Catania, Italy, from May 2017 to June 2018. We controlled hospital discharge records for patients admitted to hospital obstetric wards searching the measles diagnostic code. We have indicated the case as “confirmed” when the IgM was found to be positive with the ELISA method. We registered 843 cases of measles and 51% were females (430 cases). 24 patients between the ages of 17 and 40 had measles while they were pregnant. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included 2 spontaneous abortions, 1 therapeutic abortion, 1 foetal death, and 6 preterm deliveries. Respiratory complications were more prevalent in pregnant women (21%) than in nonpregnant women with measles (9%). 14 health care workers (1.7%) were infected with measles, and none of these had been previously vaccinated. Immune response mechanisms were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with measles. To reduce the rate of measles complications, gynaecologists should investigate vaccination history and antibody test results in all women of childbearing age. During a measles outbreak, gynaecologists and midwives should be active proponents of vaccination administration and counteract any vaccine hesitancy not only in patients but also among health care workers.