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Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 379271, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/379271
Review Article

Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Review

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 5538, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Received 9 May 2011; Accepted 1 September 2011

Academic Editor: Oliver Ezechi

Copyright © 2012 Olabisi M. Loto and Ibraheem Awowole. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) was declared a public health emergency by WHO in 2005. The disease is a significant contributor to maternal mortality and is among the three leading causes of death among women aged 15–45 years in high burden areas. The exact incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy, though not readily available, is expected to be as high as in the general population. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in pregnancy may be challenging, as the symptoms may initially be ascribed to the pregnancy, and the normal weight gain in pregnancy may temporarily mask the associated weight loss. Obstetric complications of TB include spontaneous abortion, small for date uterus, preterm labour, low birth weight, and increased neonatal mortality. Congenital TB though rare, is associated with high perinatal mortality. Rifampicin, INH and Ethambutol are the first line drugs while Pyrazinamide use in pregnancy is gaining popularity. Isoniazid preventive therapy is a WHO innovation aimed at reducing the infection in HIV positive pregnant women. Babies born to this mother should be commenced on INH prophylaxis for six months, after which they are vaccinated with BCG if they test negative. Successful control of TB demands improved living conditions, public enlightenment, primary prevention of HIV/AIDS and BCG vaccination.