Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2014, Article ID 274651, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/274651
Review Article

Manual Removal of the Placenta after Vaginal Delivery: An Unsolved Problem in Obstetrics

Division of Obstetrics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland

Received 16 August 2013; Revised 12 January 2014; Accepted 30 January 2014; Published 9 April 2014

Academic Editor: Antonio Farina

Copyright © 2014 Fiona Urner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. J. Mercier and M. van de Velde, “Major obstetric hemorrhage,” Anesthesiology Clinics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 53–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Wise and V. Clark, “Strategies to manage major obstetric haemorrhage,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. ACOG Practice Bulletin, “Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists Number 76, October 2006: postpartum hemorrhage,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 108, pp. 1039–1047, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Cantwell, T. Clutton-Brock, G. Cooper et al., “Saving mothers' lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006–2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 118, pp. 1–203, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. D. Weeks and F. M. Mirembe, “The retained placenta—new insights into an old problem,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 109–110, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Krapp, A. A. Baschat, M. Hankeln, and U. Gembruch, “Gray scale and color Doppler sonography in the third stage of labor for early detection of failed placental separation,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 138–142, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. D. Weeks, “The retained placenta,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 22, pp. 1103–1117, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. A. Combs and R. K. Laros Jr., “Prolonged third stage of labor: morbidity and risk factors,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 863–867, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. F. Magann, S. Evans, S. P. Chauhan, G. Lanneau, A. D. Fisk, and J. C. Morrison, “The length of the third stage of labor and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 290–293, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. “Intrapartum Care. Care for healthy women and their babies during childbirth,” National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2007, http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11837/36280/36280.pdf.
  11. C. Ronsmans and W. J. Graham, “Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why,” The Lancet, vol. 368, no. 9542, pp. 1189–1200, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Deneux-Tharaux, A. Macfarlane, C. Winter et al., “Policies for manual removal of placenta at vaginal delivery: variations in timing within Europe,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. D. Weeks, G. Alia, G. Vernon et al., “Umbilical vein oxytocin for the treatment of retained placenta (Release Study): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9709, pp. 141–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Y. Khong, “The pathology of placenta accreta, a worldwide epidemic,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1243–1246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Mazouni, G. Gorincour, V. Juhan, and F. Bretelle, “Placenta accreta: a review of current advances in prenatal diagnosis,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 599–603, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Bencaiova, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beinder, “Abnormal placental invasion: experience at 1 center,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 709–714, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. H. Comstock, “Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: a review,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Rosen, “Placenta accreta and cesarean scar pregnancy: overlooked costs of the rising cesarean section rate,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 519–529, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. M. Silver, M. B. Landon, D. J. Rouse et al., “Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1226–1232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Mori, J. M. Nardin, N. Yamamoto, and G. Carroli, “Umbilical vein injection for the routine management of third stage of labour,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD006176, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. M. Nardin, A. Weeks, and G. Carroli, “Umbilical vein injection for management of retained placenta,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 5, Article ID CD001337, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. G. Eller, T. T. Porter, P. Soisson, and R. M. Silver, “Optimal management strategies for placenta accreta,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 648–654, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. F. Esakoff, T. N. Sparks, A. J. Kaimal et al., “Diagnosis and morbidity of placenta accreta,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 324–327, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. D'Antonio, C. Iacovella, and A. Bhide, “Prenatal identification of invasive placentation using ultrasound: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 42, pp. 509–517, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. M. Berkley and A. Z. Abuhamad, “Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: is sonography all we need?” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 32, pp. 1345–1350, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  26. G. Simonazzi, A. Farina, A. Curti et al., “Higher circulating mRNA levels of placental specific genes in a patient with placenta accreta,” Prenatal Diagnosis, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 827–829, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Kawashima, A. Sekizawa, W. Ventura, K. Koide, K. Hori, and T. Okai, “Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28–32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 21, pp. 215–220, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Krapp, R. Axt-Fliedner, C. Berg, A. Geipel, U. Germer, and U. Gembruch, “Clinical application of grey scale and colour Doppler sonography during abnormal third stage of labour: colour Doppler during abnormal third stage of labour,” Ultraschall in der Medizin, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Audureau, C. Deneux-Tharaux, P. Lefèvre et al., “Practices for prevention, diagnosis and management of postpartum haemorrhage: impact of a regional multifaceted intervention,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 1325–1333, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus