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Evaluating Antiplasmodial and Antimalarial Activities of Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Extracts on P. falciparum Parasite Cultures and P. berghei-Infected MiceRead the full article
Journal of Pathogens publishes papers on all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions, covering all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans, animals, or plants.
Chief Editor, Professor Chambers, is a biochemist with expertise in various techniques for the detection and diagnosis of Influenza and bacterial pathogens.
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Chlamydia and Its Many Ways of Escaping the Host Immune System
The increasing number of new cases of Chlamydia infection worldwide may be attributed to the pathogen’s ability to evade various host immune responses. Summarized here are means of evasion utilized by Chlamydia enabling survival in a hostile host environment. The pathogen's persistence involves a myriad of molecular interactions manifested in a variety of ways, e.g., formation of membranous intracytoplasmic inclusions and cytokine-induced amino acid synthesis, paralysis of phagocytic neutrophils, evasion of phagocytosis, inhibition of host cell apoptosis, suppression of antigen presentation, and induced expression of a check point inhibitor of programmed host cell death. Future studies could focus on the targeting of these molecules associated with immune evasion, thus limiting the spread and tissue damage caused by this pathogen.
Bacterial Isolates and Drug Susceptibility Pattern of Sterile Body Fluids from Tertiary Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study
This study was conducted in Ayder comprehensive specialized Hospital, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, to determine the bacterial profiles and drug susceptibility pattern from body fluids. A total of 218 patients were investigated, of which 146 (67%) were males. The age of the study subjects ranged from 2 days to 80 years with 96(44%) in the age group of 15 years and above. The overall bacterial infection was 44 (20.2 %) of which gram positive bacteria were prevalent, 23 (52.3%) than gram negative bacteria 21 (47.7%). The predominantly isolated bacteria were S. pneumonia, followed by K.pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E coli. Multidrug resistance was observed in 12 (100%) of the isolated gram positive bacteria and in 6 (75%) of the isolated gram negative bacteria.
Cellular and Molecular Level Mechanisms against Electrochemical Cancer Therapy
Electrochemical treatment (ECT) is a promising new way to induce tumor regression by flowing direct current into the cancer tissue. ECT was applied to different kinds of tumors in clinical studies and showed good results. In addition, basic research has almost not been done in the field of evaluation of efficacy, dose-response, and cytotoxicity. Therefore, the objective is to study the cellular mechanism in the antitumor effect of ECT and to contribute data of basic research of ECT. In the cell-level study, tumor cells (Sarcoma-180, Scc-7, Ehrlich Carcinoma) were studied using ICR mice and C3H mice. In the study group, pH values of control, 10mA × 150secs, 10mA × 300secs, and 10mA × 600secs groups were measured five times each. In histological level studies, ECT was performed on tumors inoculated on the upper part of the right foot of C3H mice. In each group, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 6, 12, and 24 hrs after ECT treatment, and tumors were removed. The excised tumor was fixed in tissue with 10% formalin, and HE staining and apoptosis antibody staining were carried out from the obtained tissue section and observation. In the study at the cellular level, statistically significant differences were observed in all ECT groups in Sarcoma in the tumor growth measurement study compared with the control group. Statistically significant differences were also observed in Scc-7 in all ECT groups compared to the control group. In the intratumoral pH measurement study, there was a statistically significant difference between the anode and the cathode in each group compared to the control group. In the examination at the histological level, microscopic observation of a slide stained with apoptosis antibody with a magnification of 400 times showed that 6hrs after ECT it was stronger and then decreased. By performing ECT, a weak current flows in the living body. As a result, changes in tissue pH, generation of gas, etc. occur. In this study, it was also confirmed that the intratumor pH value becomes strongly acidic on the anode side and strongly alkaline on the cathode side. In addition, this study confirmed the occurrence of gas during treatment of ECT. Changes in the pH and the like cause changes in the environment in the cell, denaturation of proteins, apoptosis, and necrosis. In this study, a significant increase in apoptosis was confirmed in each ECT group compared to the control group. Treatment effects by ECT were also observed in tumor growth measurement studies and tumor weight measurement studies. From these research results, ECT is considered to be effective as a tumor treatment method.
Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress as Indicators of Fungi Environmental Pollution in Balb/c Albino Mice Monitored from South West, Nigeria
The presence and detection of common airborne fungi in an area are important for the prevention and treatment of allergic fungal diseases. Because of the ubiquitous nature of fungi, the effect of four different fungal species in production of antioxidant and reactive oxygen species production in balb/c albino mice was investigated. Fifty-four balb/c mice were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 6) and a normal control group. Four different fungal plates, comprising Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus penicillioides, Penicillium citrinum, and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were the most abundant fungi species sampled in the environment were cultured for one week to make 2.3 x 107 and 3.2 x 105 spores and injected intranasally in sterile saline into the nostrils of each of the mice. Results showed that all fungal inoculated organism produced statistically (P<0.05) significant reactive oxygen species while antioxidant parameters were significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner compared with normal control mice. It is therefore concluded that Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus penicillioides, Penicillium citrinum, and Penicillium chrysogenum can alter and decrease immune function in balb/c mice. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the most common airborne fungal species present in Southwest Nigeria and to study their allergic reactions.
OmpA-Like Proteins of Porphyromonas gingivalis Mediate Resistance to the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37
Subgingival bacteria are continually exposed to gingival crevicular fluids that are derived from serum, which contain various bactericidal agents. The periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been demonstrated to possess a variety of abilities to resist bactericidal agents, due to which it is able to propagate in the subgingival environment. We previously demonstrated that the major surface glycoproteins of P. gingivalis—Pgm6 and Pgm7, also called outer membrane protein A-like proteins (OmpALPs)—mediate resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum, but their precise role remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the wild-type and Pgm6/Pgm7-deficient P. gingivalis strains toward major antimicrobial peptides in the oral cavity, human β-defensins (hBDs) 1-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37. hBDs showed a considerably weak bactericidal activity against both bacterial strains. LL-37 also showed a weak activity against the wild-type strain; however, it showed a significant activity against the Pgm6/Pgm7-deficient strain. In the Pgm6/Pgm7-deficient strain, LL-37 remarkably accumulated on the bacterial cell surface, which may result in the destruction of the outer membrane. Additionally, the bactericidal activity of hBDs against the Pgm6/Pgm7-deficient strain was found to be synergistically promoted in the presence of LL-37. Our results suggest that OmpALPs specifically protect P. gingivalis from the bactericidal activity of LL-37; thus, P. gingivalis may adeptly survive in LL-37-producing subgingival environments.
Antimalarial Activity of Kaempferol and Its Combination with Chloroquine in Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice
The search for new antimalarial drugs has become an urgent requirement due to resistance to the available drugs and the lack of an effective vaccine. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of kaempferol against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice as an in vivo model. Chronic toxicity and antimalarial activities of kaempferol alone and in combination with chloroquine were investigated in P. berghei ANKA infected ICR mice using standard procedures. The results showed that chronic administration of 2,000 mg/kg of kaempferol resulted in no overt signs of toxicity as well as no hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or hematotoxicity. Interestingly, kaempferol exerted significant (P < 0.05) chemosuppressive, chemoprophylactic, and curative activities in a dose-dependent manner. The highest antimalarial activity was found at a dose of 20 mg/kg which resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged survival of infected mice. Moreover, combination treatment of chloroquine and kaempferol also presented significant (P < 0.05) antimalarial effects, although the effects were not significantly different from the chloroquine treated group. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that kaempferol possesses acceptable antimalarial activities. However, further investigation should be undertaken on the mechanism responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.
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