Journal of Pathogens
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Study on Periplaneta americana (Blattodea: Blattidae) Fungal Infections in Hospital Sewer System, Esfahan City, Iran, 2017

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Journal of Pathogens publishes papers on all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions, covering all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans, animals, or plants.

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Chief Editor, Professor Chambers, is a biochemist with expertise in various techniques for the detection and diagnosis of Influenza and bacterial pathogens.

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Research Article

Invasion of Epithelial Cells Is Correlated with Secretion of Biosurfactant via the Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) of Shigella flexneri

Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules produced by many microorganisms, usually bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. They possess the property of reducing the tension of the membrane interfaces. No studies have been conducted on Shigella species showing the role of biosurfactant-like molecules (BLM) in pathogenicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of Shigella environmental and clinical strains to produce BLM and investigate the involvement of biosurfactants in pathogenicity. Our study has shown that BLM are secreted in the extracellular medium with EI24 ranging from 80% to 100%. The secretion is depending on the type III secretion system (T3SS). Moreover, our results have shown that S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei are able to interact with hydrophobic areas with 17.64%, 21.42%, and 22.22% hydrophobicity, respectively. BLM secretion is totally prevented due to inhibition of T3SS by 100 mM benzoic and 1.5 mg/ml salicylic acids. P. aeruginosa harboring T3SS is able to produce 100% of BLM in the presence or in the absence of both T3SS inhibitors. The secreted BLM are extractable with an organic solvent such as chloroform, and this could entirely be considered a lipopeptide or polypeptide compound. Secretion of BLM allows some Shigella strains to induce multicellular phenomena like “swarming.”

Research Article

The Burden of Neurocysticercosis at a Single New York Hospital

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a disease caused by the larval pork tapeworm Taenia solium, has emerged as an important infection in the United States. In this study, we describe the spectrum of NCC infection in eastern Long Island, where there is a growing population of immigrants from endemic countries. A retrospective study was designed to identify patients diagnosed with NCC using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes in the electronic medical records at Stony Brook University Hospital between 2005 and 2016. We identified 52 patients (56% male, median age: 35 years) diagnosed with NCC in the only tertiary medical center in Suffolk County. Twenty-five cases were reported in the last three years of the study. Forty-eight (94%) patients self-identified as Hispanic or Latino in the electronic medical record. Twenty-two (44%) and 28 (56%) patients had parenchymal and extraparenchymal lesions, respectively. Nineteen (41.3%) patients presented with seizures to the emergency department. Six patients (11.7%) had hydrocephalus, and five of them required frequent hospitalizations and neurosurgical interventions, including permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunts or temporary external ventricular drains. No deaths were reported. The minimum accumulated estimated cost of NCC hospitalizations during the study period for all patients was approximately 1.4 million United States dollars (USD). In conclusion, NCC predominantly affects young, Hispanic immigrants in Eastern Long Island, particularly in zip codes correlating to predominantly Hispanic communities. The number of cases diagnosed increased at an alarming rate during the study period. Our study suggests a growing need for screening high-risk patients and connecting patients to care in hopes of providing early intervention and treatment to avoid potentially detrimental neurological sequelae.

Research Article

Investigating the Role of Mucin as Frontline Defense of Mucosal Surfaces against Mycobacterium avium Subsp. hominissuis

Mycobacterium avium is a human and animal pathogen that infects the host through the mucosal surfaces. Past work has demonstrated that the bacterium can interact with both the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Those surfaces in the body are covered by a bilayer of a glycoprotein, mucin, which works as a physical barrier and a gel which contains antibacterial and antivirus properties. This current work shows that different strains of M. avium, in contrast to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes, are not able to bind to mucins, MUC2 and MUC5b, the main mucins in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, respectively. The lack of binding is due to the characteristics of the cell wall and is impaired by altering lipids, proteins, or glycolipids. M. avium, in contrast to E. coli, interacts with epithelial cells equally in the presence or absence of the mucin, suggesting that the cell wall of the pathogen can facilitate the bacterial movement through the mucin layer, towards the mucosal wall. In conclusion, the study has shown that M. avium can avoid the mucin barrier, which explains its ability to interact with the mucosal epithelium, even in absence of motion-related structures.

Research Article

Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Diabetic Foot Infection of Patients from Bandar Abbas District, Southern Iran

Diabetic foot infection is among the most common complications of diabetes mellitus which significantly causes hospitalization and is the most prevalent etiology of nontraumatic amputation worldwide. The current study aimed at assessing the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of diabetic foot infection of patients from the Bandar Abbas area, in the south of Iran. In this study, a total of 83 diabetic patients with diabetic infected foot wounds referring to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, from 2017 to 2018 were assessed. Samples were obtained from wound sites and evaluated by aerobic culture and also an antibiogram test for antibiotic susceptibility. Factors including age, sex, type of diabetes, the medication used for diabetes, previous history of diabetic foot infection, duration of wound incidence, fever, and laboratory indices were recorded for each subject. The most prevalent detected bacteria were Escherichia coli (20.5%), Enterococcus sp. (16.9%), Klebsiella sp. (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.4%), Enterobacter sp. (7.2%), and Acinetobacter sp. (6%). The results of antibiogram tests revealed the most and the least antibiotic sensitivity for E. coli sp. as meropenem and ciprofloxacin, for Enterococcus sp. as gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, for Klebsiella sp. as amikacin and cotrimoxazole, and for Enterobacter sp. as cotrimoxazole and both amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin and doxycycline, and Acinetobacter sp. was 100% resistant to all antibiotics except amikacin and gentamycin. A significant statistical association was found between the C-reactive protein and the patients’ diabetic foot infection organisms (). Findings of the study revealed E. coli sp. as the most common bacteria which are infecting the foot lesions in the studied population. The highest antibiotic susceptibility was seen for vancomycin, linezolid, and carbapenem.

Research Article

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Associated Risk Factors among Patients with Wound Infection at Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

Background. The spectrums of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are manifold and are associated with worse outcomes. A study on the prevalence of these pathogens and their sensitivity patterns will give updated information which is very helpful for health personnel responsible in the management of patients and timely monitoring of the emergence of resistant bacteria. Hence, the study aimed at assessing the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and associated factors among patients with wound infection at Dessie Referral Hospital. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 266 patients at Dessie Referral Hospital from February to May 2016. Wound swab samples were collected aseptically using Levine’s technique and transported to Dessie Regional Laboratory by using brain-heart infusion transport media. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was done based on cultural and biochemical profiles. Drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion technique as per the standard and interpreted based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. Staphylococcus isolates from 266 processed wound swabs were 92 (34.58%). Of these, 26 (28.3%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 66 (71.7%) were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. The overall prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus among the study population was 9.8%. The isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus showed full resistance to penicillin (100%) followed by erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (16, 61.5%) and cotrimoxazole and gentamicin (14, 53.8%). From the total S. aureus isolates, 20 (21.7%) of them showed multidrug resistance. Of these methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 18 (69.8%) showed high multidrug resistance. Patients who are farmers in occupation (AOR = 6.1, 95% CI (1.086–33.724)), admitted in the hospital (AOR = 3.56, 95% CI (1.429–8.857)), and have low BMI (<18.5) (AOR = 13.89, 95% CI (4.919–39.192)) were among the risk factors significantly associated with wound infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion. All methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were 100% resistant to penicillin and showed high multidrug resistance. Therefore, antibiotic susceptibility test should be performed prior to treatment.

Research Article

Association of LEI0258 Marker Alleles and Susceptibility to Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Infection in Kuroiler, Sasso, and Local Tanzanian Chicken Embryos

Newcastle disease (ND) control by vaccination and an institution of biosecurity measures is less feasible in backyard chicken in developing countries. Therefore, an alternative disease control strategy like the genetic selection of less susceptible chicken genotypes is a promising option. In the present study, genetic polymorphism of LEIO258 marker and association with susceptibility to virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in Kuroilers, Sasso, and local Tanzanian chicken embryos were investigated. Samples from high (15%) and less (15%) susceptible cohorts were genotyped by sequencing of LEI0258 marker. A total of 75 DNA sequences comprised of 29 Kuroiler, 29 local Tanzanian chickens, and 17 Sasso were analyzed. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed to depict the clustering of LEI0258 marker alleles and relationship with susceptibility. Alleles with frequency ≥3 were considered for association with susceptibility by the use of the inference technique. The present findings suggest that some LEI0258 marker genetic polymorphisms apart from LEI0258 marker allelic based on sizes may be linked with chicken MHC-B haplotypes that confer chickens variability in resistance or susceptibility to infections. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the presence of relationship between LEI0258 marker polymorphisms and variations in chicken susceptibility to NDV infection, which could be utilized in breeding programs designed to improve chicken disease resistance.

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