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Journal of Pathogens has recently been accepted into Food Science & Technology AbstractsGo to Table of Contents
Journal of Pathogens publishes papers on all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions, covering all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans, animals, or plants.
Chief Editor, Professor Chambers, is a biochemist with expertise in various techniques for the detection and diagnosis of Influenza and bacterial pathogens.
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Intestinal Parasitic Infection and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-Infected Patients Seeking Healthcare in a Rural Hospital in Ghana
Background. Parasitic infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are common in various regions and populations across the world and have since remained a persistent public health challenge. Sub-Saharan Africa harbors the greatest burden of the infections due to sociodemographic and behavioral factors. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected persons has been poorly investigated in Ghana. Aim. This study sought to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected individuals attending the antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in St. Mary Theresa Hospital, Dodi Papase. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2021 to September 2021 among three hundred and thirty-five HIV-infected individuals in the study area. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors were collected with the aid of a close-ended structured questionnaire. Furthermore, stool samples were collected from each participant and examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by microscopy using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration, and modified Ziehl–Neelsen (Zn) techniques. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 and Graphpad Prism version 8. Results. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections was 5.97%. Species-specific prevalence was found to be 2.99% for Giardia lamblia, 1.19% for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 0.90% each for Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Trichuris trichiura. There was a significant association between participants’ educational level and intestinal parasitic infection. In addition, gastrointestinal parasitic infections were not found to be associated with age. Unemployed participants, those with a lower frequency of deworming, and those who do not use water closet toilet facilities were at a higher risk of getting infected. Conclusion. The lower infection rate recorded in this study suggests that public health interventions put in place are yielding significant results. Even though the prevalence is low, routine screening of all HIV-infected patients for parasitic infection is recommended to ensure timely, effective treatment and comprehensive care.
Characteristics of Escherichia coli Isolated from Intestinal Microbiota Children of 0–5 Years Old in the Commune of Abomey-Calavi
Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium and one of the first bacteria to colonize the digestive tract of newborns after birth. It is characterized by great versatility and metabolic flexibility that allows its survival in different niches. The present study aims at analyzing the diversity of E. coli strains isolated from the intestinal microbiota of children aged from 0 to 5 years in the commune of Abomey-Calavi in Benin. For this purpose, a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 135 stool samples were collected from the pediatric clinic of Abomey-Calavi. Microbiological analyses were performed according to standard microbiology analytical techniques. The molecular characterization of E. coli was performed by investigating eight genes (dinB, icdA, pabB, polB, putP, trpA, trpB, and uidA) using the PCR technique. The results showed that the average loading rate on stool samples was 3.74 × 107 CFU/g for TAMF. A total of 7 species of bacteria were identified at different proportions: Staphylococcus spp (55.36%), E. coli (14.29%), Klebsiella ornithinolytica (12.5%), Serratia odorifera (5.36%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (5.36%). Interestingly, isolated E. coli presented a resistance of 100% to cefotaxime and aztreonam. In addition, resistances of 95.24% and 50% were observed against erythromycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. The molecular characterization of the isolated E. coli strains allowed us to discover another molecular variation within the isolated strains. Genes encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd) and DNA polymerase II (polB) were detected at 96.30% in the isolated E. coli strains. Moreover, the genes encoding the enzymes beta-D-glucuronidase (uidA) and DNA polymerase (dinB) were detected at 88.89% in the isolated E. coli strains. Interestingly, 81.48%, 85.19, 92.59%, and 100% of isolated E. coli strains expressed the genes encoding the enzymes tryptophan synthase subunit A (trpA), proline permease (putP), p-aminobenzoate synthase, and tryptophan synthase subunit B (trpB), respectively. The diversity of E. coli strains reflects the importance of regulatory mechanisms in the adaptation of bacteria to the gut microbiota.
The Pattern of Microorganisms and Drug Susceptibility in Pediatric Oncologic Patients with Febrile Neutropenia
Objective. The study aimed to describe the pattern of causative microorganisms, drug susceptibility, risk factors of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, and clinical impact of these organisms on pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study of oncologic patients aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed with febrile neutropenia in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital was conducted between January 2013 to December 2017. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of febrile neutropenia episodes, causative pathogens, and their antibiotic susceptibilities were recorded. Result. This study included 267 patients with 563 febrile neutropenia episodes. The median (range) age was 5.1 years (1 month–15 years). The most common underlying disease was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (42.7%). Of 563 febrile episodes, there were 192 (34.1%) with microbiologically documented infection. Among these 192 episodes of microbiologically documented infection, there were 214 causative pathogens: 154 bacteria (72%), 32 viruses (15%), 27 fungus (12.6%), and 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (0.4%). Gram-negative bacteria (48.6%) accounted for most of the causative pathogens. Twenty-three percent of them were multidrug resistant, and 18% were carbapenem resistant. Among Gram-positive bacterial infection which accounted for 23.4% of all specimens, the proportion of MRSA was 20%. The 2-week mortality rate was 3.7%. Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infection caused significant adverse events and mortality compared to nonresistant bacterial infection (). Conclusion. There is high rate of drug-resistant organism infection in pediatric oncology patients in a tertiary-care center in Thailand. Infection with drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infection was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Continuous surveillance for the pattern of drug-resistant infections is crucial.
Resistance Status of Bacteria from a Health Facility in Ghana: A Retrospective Study
Background. Regardless of the global concerted effort to control the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, increasing cases are continually documented at many medical centres. This situation is reinforced by inadequate information on the trend of resistance resulting from lack of regular antimicrobial resistance surveillance. The present study sought to detect the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extended drug-resistant (XDR), and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacterial isolates at a health facility in Ghana from January 2018 to July 2020. Method. A total of 800 data on antimicrobial testing results were extracted from the records of the health facility. The extracted data were explored for the detection of MDR, XDR, and PDR. The study further determined the use of antibiotics using the multiple-drug resistance index (MDRI). Results. Except for Staphylococcus and Neisseria spp., all bacterial isolates showed extremely high (100%) proportion of MDR. Although only Staphylococcus spp. (38 (4.8%)) was observed to be XDR, the rest of the bacteria showed the potential to attain the status of XDR or PDR. MDRI indicated high use of antibiotics in the health facility. Conclusion. The high antimicrobial resistance observed by the study underscores the need for prompt and effective antibiotic resistance control strategies.
Topical Bambusa vulgaris Extract Enhances Wound Healing in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Background. Bambusa vulgaris (Tabashir) has been shown to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects due to the presence of ascorbic acid, vitamin B2, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds which can be beneficial in the process of wound healing. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of topical Tabashir extract on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Methods. Twenty-eight female BALB/c mice (4 weeks old, 18 ± 4 grams) were injected subcutaneously in tail-base with L. major amastigotes. Treatment started when the CL lesions were appeared and continued for 21 days. Mice were then divided into four groups: E1, treated daily with 5% of Tabashir extract gel; E2, treated daily with 10% Tabashir gel; C1, irrigated daily only with normal saline; and C2, received vehicle gel daily. The wounds’ sizes were measured every 3 days, using vernier caliper. The volume densities of vessels, collagens, and hair follicles, vessels’ length density, and mean diameter were soteriologically determined. Results. Tabashir enhanced wound closure rate through increasing the number of fibroblasts, collagen bundles, and vessels, according to histomorphometric evaluation while it did not affect the parasitic load. Findings of the in vitro study revealed that the extract has substantial mortality for the Leishmania promastigotes. Conclusion. Topical Tabashir showed promising effects on the healing process of skin wounds caused by CL in this experimental study. Further studies are suggested to find out the molecules which are involved in the healing process.
Antimalarial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts and Selection of Resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA in a Mouse Model
Background. Chemotherapy plays a crucial role in malaria control. However, the main obstacle to treatment has been the rise of parasite resistance to most antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) remain the most effective antimalarial medicines available today. However, malaria parasite tolerance to ACTs is now increasingly prevalent especially in Southeast Asia presenting the danger of the spread of ACTs resistance to other parts of the world. Consequently, this creates the need for alternative effective antimalarials. Therefore, this study sought out to determine antimalarial potential, safety, and resistance development of the extracts in a mouse model. Method. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained by solvent extraction. The extracts were assayed for acute toxicity in vivo. Additionally, the two extracts were evaluated for antimalarial activity in vivo against Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain by the 4-day suppressive test at 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day. Packed cell volume was evaluated to determine anemia manifestation. Finally, continuous drug pressure experiment at 500 mg/kg and DNA amplification via PCR were conducted. The amplicons underwent through Sanger sequencing. Results. There was no toxicity realized in the animals at 2000 mg/kg. Importantly, high parasitemia suppression of 75.52% and 75.30% using a dose of 500 mg/kg of methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively, was noted. The extracts were able to reverse packed cell volume reduction. Nigella sativa-resistant phenotype was selected as delayed parasite clearance. However, there was no change in the nucleotide sequences of PbMDR1 and PbCRT genes. Conclusion. The results provide room for future exploitation of the plant as an antimalarial.
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