Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2012, Article ID 520564, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/520564
Research Article

Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia

1Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Ullevålsveien 72, P. O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway
2Central Veterinary Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries, P.O. Box 33790, Balmoral, Lusaka 10102, Zambia
3Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka 10101, Zambia

Received 5 June 2012; Revised 23 July 2012; Accepted 3 August 2012

Academic Editor: Nat F. Brown

Copyright © 2012 Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Central Statistics Office (CSO), Livestock and Housing Population Census of Zamia, Government of the Republic of Zambia, Government Printers, Lusaka, Zambia, 2008.
  2. M. Ijaz, M. Arshad, M. Hussain, and M. Iqbal, “Stduies on the prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from yolk of broiler chicks suffering from ompalitis,” Animal Health and Production, vol. 14, pp. 51–54, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Iqbal, I. A. Shah, M. A. Khan, and S. Jan, “Prevalence and in vitro antibiogram of bacteria associated with ompalitis in chicks,” Pakistan Veterinary Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 94–96, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. L. Reece and V. D. Beddome, “Causes of culling and mortality in three flocks of broiler chickens in Victoria during 1979,” Veterinary Record, vol. 112, no. 19, pp. 450–452, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. M. Hang'ombe, R. N. Sharma, L. M. Tuchili, and O. Skjerve, “Isolation of bacteria from table eggs in Zambia,” Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 445–447, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Kabilika, M. Musonda, and N. R. Sharma, “Bacteria flora from dead-in-shell chicken embryos from Zambia,” Indian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 8, pp. 1–6, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  7. B. M. Hang'ombe, N. R. Sharma, E. Skjerve, and L. M. Tuchili, “Isolation of bacteria during processing of chicken carcasses for the market in Lusaka, Zambia,” Veterinarski Arhiv, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 191–197, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Tuchili, W. Ulaya, Y. Kato, and C. Kaneuchi, “Recent characterisation of Salmonella strains isolated from chickens in Zambia,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 77–78, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Sato, G. Sato, L. Tuchili et al., “Status of Salmonella gallinarum-pullorum infections in poultry in Zambia,” Avian Diseases, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 490–495, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. K. Phiri, A. M. Phiri, M. Ziela, A. Chota, M. Masuku, and J. Monrad, “Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 309–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. A. Merchat and R. A. Packer, Veterinary Bacteriology and Virology, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 7th edition, 1967.
  12. M. Cheesbrough, Medical Laboratory Manual For Tropical Countries, vol. 2, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1991.
  13. D. Bergey, J. G. Holt, N. R. Krieg, and P. H. Sneath, Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994.
  14. S. T. Cowan, Cowan and Steel's Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria, Cambridge Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 1985.
  15. OIE, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines For Terristerial Animals, Chapter 2, 7, 5, Revue Scientifique et Technique, 5th edition, 2005.
  16. B. M. Hang'ombe, R. N. Sharma, E. Skjerve, and L. M. Tuchili, “Occurrence of Salmonella enteritidis in pooled table eggs and market-ready chicken carcasses in Zambia,” Avian Diseases, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 597–599, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. M. Hang'Ombe, R. N. Sharma, L. M. Tuchili, and O. Skjerve, “Isolation of bacteria from table eggs in Zambia,” Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 445–447, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. S. Kabilika and N. R. Sharma, “Escherichia Coli serotypes from dead-in-shell chicken embryos from hatcheries in Zambia,” Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, vol. 45, pp. 199–204, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. S. Kabilika, M. Musonda, and N. R. Sharma, “Bacterial flora from dead-in-shell Chicken embryos in Zambia,” Indian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1–6, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. M. Tuchili, H. Kodama, R. N. Sharma et al., “Detection of Salmonella DNA in chicken embryos and environmental samples by polymerase chain reaction,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 881–884, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Bergey, J. D. Holt, N. R. Krieg, and P. H. Sneath, Bergey'S Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994.
  22. B. M. Hang'ombe, R. N. Sharma, E. Skjerve, and L. M. Tuchili, “Occurrence of Salmonella enteritidis in pooled table eggs and market-ready chicken carcasses in Zambia,” Avian Diseases, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 597–599, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. M. Tuchili, H. Kodama, R. N. Sharma et al., “Detection of Salmonella DNA in chicken embryos and environmental samples by polymerase chain reaction,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 881–884, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. D. Dube, “Salmonella & shigella carrier rate of food handlers in Lusaka,” Medical Journal of Zambia, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 54–55, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. D. Dube and A. G. Bhagwat, “Non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in Zambian infants,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 336–337, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. D. Dube, “Acute bacterial diarrhoeas due to salmonella, shigella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Zambia,” Medical Journal of Zambia, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 26–29, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. U. Patel, V. Bhushan, C. Chintu, and N. Bathirunathan, “Bacteriological study of diarrhoea in children at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 793–797, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Tyshko, N. Bathirunathan, and V. Tyshko, “A study of enteropathogenic organisms isolated in the public health laboratory, Lusaka,” Journal of Hygiene Epidemiology Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus