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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2016, Article ID 7318075, 10 pages
Review Article

Antibiotic-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Increasing Success Remains a Challenge as a Nosocomial Pathogen

1Escuela de Salud Pública de México, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avenida Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, MOR, Mexico
2Departamento de Infección e Inmunidad, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avenida Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, MOR, Mexico

Received 5 November 2015; Revised 28 December 2015; Accepted 11 January 2016

Academic Editor: Cormac G. M. Gahan

Copyright © 2016 Ana Maria Gonzalez-Villoria and Veronica Valverde-Garduno. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Antibiotic-resistant infectious bacteria currently imply a high risk and therefore constitute a strong challenge when treating patients in hospital settings. Characterization of these species and of particular strains is a priority for the establishment of diagnostic tests and preventive procedures. The relevance of Acinetobacter baumannii as a problematic microorganism in inpatient facilities, particularly intensive care units, has increased over time. This review aims to draw attention to (i) the historical emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, (ii) the current status of surveillance needs in Latin America, and (iii) recent data suggesting that A. baumannii continues to spread and evolve in hospital settings. First, we present synopsis of the series of events leading to the discovery and precise identification of this microorganism in hospital settings. Then key events in the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant genes by this microorganism are summarized, highlighting the race between new antibiotic generation and emergence of A. baumannii resistant strains. Here we review the historical development of this species as an infectious threat, the current state of its distribution, and antibiotic resistance characteristics, and we discuss future prospects for its control.