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Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4067108, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4067108
Research Article

Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Two Geographical Regions of Nigeria

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
3Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
4Institute for Advanced Medical Research & Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
5Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
6Institute of Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
7Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora, Nigeria

Correspondence should be addressed to M. O. Adewumi

Received 23 August 2017; Accepted 23 November 2017; Published 13 December 2017

Academic Editor: Mario M. D’Elios

Copyright © 2017 I. M. Ifeorah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains a major public health concern in resource limited regions of the world. Yet data reporting is suboptimal and surveillance system is inadequate. In Nigeria, there is dearth of information on prevalence of acute HEV infection. This study was therefore designed to describe acute HEV infection among antenatal clinic attendees and community dwellers from two geographical regions in Nigeria. Seven hundred and fifty plasma samples were tested for HEV IgM by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. The tested samples were randomly selected from a pool of 1,115 blood specimens previously collected for viral hepatitis studies among selected populations (pregnant women, 272; Oyo community dwellers, 438; Anambra community dwellers, 405) between September 2012 and August 2013. One (0.4%) pregnant woman in her 3rd trimester had detectable HEV IgM, while community dwellers from the two study locations had zero prevalence rates of HEV IgM. Detection of HEV IgM in a pregnant woman, especially in her 3rd trimester, is of clinical and epidemiological significance. The need therefore exists for establishment of a robust HEV surveillance system in Nigeria and especially amidst the pregnant population in a bid to improve maternal and child health.