Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pathogens
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 3759704, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3759704
Research Article

Nonphotodynamic Roles of Methylene Blue: Display of Distinct Antimycobacterial and Anticandidal Mode of Actions

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Manesar, Gurugram 122413, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Zeeshan Fatima and Saif Hameed

Received 28 August 2017; Revised 22 December 2017; Accepted 31 December 2017; Published 31 January 2018

Academic Editor: Jose Yuste

Copyright © 2018 Rahul Pal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Tanwar, S. Das, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Multidrug resistance: an emerging crisis,” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2014, Article ID 541340, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. H. Nikaido, “Multidrug resistance in bacteria,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 78, pp. 119–146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Singh, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections,” Infezioni in Medicina, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 211–223, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Polesello, L. Segat, S. Crovella, and L. Zupin, “Candida infections and human defensins,” Protein & Peptide Letters, vol. 24, no. 8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. Q. Lu, Y. Sun, D. Tian, S. Xiang, and L. Gao, “Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on the Growth and Antifungal Susceptibility of Scedosporium and Lomentospora spp,” Mycopathologia, vol. 182, no. 11-12, pp. 1037–1043, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Dutta and P. B. Lillehoj, “An ultrasensitive enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on redox cycling amplification using methylene blue,” Analyst, vol. 142, no. 18, pp. 3492–3499, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. R. Sewell and M. P. Rivey, “A case report of benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia,” Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. P. Tardivo, A. Del Giglio, C. S. De Oliveira et al., “Methylene blue in photodynamic therapy: from basic mechanisms to clinical applications,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 175–191, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Ansari, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Antifungal action of methylene blue involves mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption of redox and membrane homeostasis in C. albicans,” The Open Microbiology Journal, vol. 10, pp. 12–22, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. K. Gupta, V. P. Reddy, M. Lavania et al., “JefA (Rv2459), a drug efflux gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers resistance to isoniazid & ethambutol,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 132, no. 8, pp. 176–188, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Pal, S. Hameed, S. Sharma, and Z. Fatima, “Influence of iron deprivation on virulence traits of mycobacteria,” The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 585–591, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Hans, S. Sharma, S. Hameed, and Z. Fatima, “Sesamol exhibits potent antimycobacterial activity: Underlying mechanisms and impact on virulence traits,” Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, vol. 10, pp. 228–237, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. Ansari, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Anticandidal effect and mechanisms of monoterpenoid, perillyl alcohol against candida albicans,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 9, Article ID e0162465, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Ansari, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Cellular energy status is indispensable for perillyl alcohol mediated abrogated membrane transport in Candida albicans,” ADMET and DMPK, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 126–134, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. V. Saibabu, S. Singh, M. A. Ansari, Z. Fatima, and S. Hameed, “Insights into the intracellular mechanisms of citronellal in Candida Albicans: Implications for reactive oxygen species-mediated necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 524–529, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Chandra, D. M. Kuhn, P. K. Mukherjee, L. L. Hoyer, T. McCormick, and M. A. Ghannoum, “Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture, and drug resistance,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 183, no. 18, pp. 5385–5394, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. M. Rodriguez, M. I. Voskuil, B. Gold, G. K. Schoolnik, and I. Smith, “ideR, an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Role of IdeR in iron-dependent gene expression, iron metabolism, and oxidative stress response,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 3371–3381, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Lemassu, V. V. Levy-Frebault, M.-A. Laneelle, and M. Daffe, “Lack of correlation between colony morphology and lipooligosaccharide content in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 1535–1541, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. B. Fregnan, D. W. Smith, and H. M. Randall, “A mutant of a scotochromogenic Mycobacterium detected by colony morphology and lipid studies,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 83, pp. 828–836, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Llorens-Fons, M. Pérez-Trujillo, E. Julián et al., “Trehalose polyphleates, external cell wall lipids in Mycobacterium abscessus, are associated with the formation of clumps with cording morphology, which have been associated with virulence,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 8, article no. 1402, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Han, M. A. Jyoti, H.-Y. Song, and W. S. Jang, “Antifungal activity and action mechanism of histatin 5-halocidin hybrid peptides against candida ssp,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 2, Article ID e0150196, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Yoshikawa, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, R. Nakashima et al., “Redox-coupled crystal structural changes in bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase,” Science, vol. 280, no. 5370, pp. 1723–1729, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. W. Bowler, M. G. Montgomery, A. G. W. Leslie, and J. E. Walker, “How azide inhibits ATP hydrolysis by the F-ATPases,” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 8646–8649, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. M. May, Z.-C. Qu, and R. R. Whitesell, “Generation of oxidant stress in cultured endothelial cells by methylene blue: Protective effects of glucose and ascorbic acid,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 777–784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. I. Voskuil, I. L. Bartek, K. Visconti, and G. K. Schoolnik, “The response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. D. Mahl, C. S. Behling, F. S. Hackenhaar et al., “Induction of ROS generation by fluconazole in Candida glabrata: Activation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative DNA damage,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 203–208, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Mizrahi and S. J. Andersen, “DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. What have we learnt from the genome sequence?” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1331–1339, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Jakimowicz, A. Brzostek, A. Rumijowska-Galewicz et al., “Characterization of the mycobacterial chromosome segregation protein ParB and identification of its target in Mycobacterium smegmatis,” Microbiology, vol. 153, no. 12, pp. 4050–4060, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. A. Lee, N. Robbins, J. L. Xie, T. Ketela, and L. E. Cowen, “Functional Genomic Analysis of Candida albicans Adherence Reveals a Key Role for the Arp2/3 Complex in Cell Wall Remodelling and Biofilm Formation,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 12, no. 11, Article ID e1006452, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Pang, X. Tian, W. Pan, and J. Xie, “Structure and function of mycobacterium glycopeptidolipids from comparative genomics perspective,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 1705–1713, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Fujiwara, N. Ohara, M. Ogawa et al., “Glycopeptidolipid of Mycobacterium smegmatis J15cs affects morphology and survival in host cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 5, Article ID e0126813, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Jarlier and H. Nikaido, “Permeability barrier to hydrophilic solutes in Mycobacterium chelonei,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 1418–1423, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Portevin, C. De Sousa-D'Auria, H. Montrozier et al., “The acyl-AMP ligase FadD32 and AccD4-containing acyl-CoA carboxylase are required for the synthesis of mycolic acids and essential for mycobacterial growth: Identification of the carboxylation product and determination of the acyl-CoA carboxylase components,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 10, pp. 8862–8874, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Milano, F. Forti, C. Sala, G. Riccardi, and D. Ghisotti, “Transcriptional regulation of furA and katG upon oxidative stress in Mycobacterium smegmatis,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 183, no. 23, pp. 6801–6806, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Dos Vultos, O. Mestre, T. Tonjum, and B. Gicquel, “DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 471–487, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Recht and R. Kolter, “Glycopeptidolipid acetylation affects sliding motility and biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 183, no. 19, pp. 5718–5724, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. S. Schorey and L. Sweet, “The mycobacterial glycopeptidolipids: structure, function, and their role in pathogenesis,” Glycobiology, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 832–841, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. F. Staab, K. Datta, and P. Rhee, “Niche-specific requirement for hyphal wall protein 1 in virulence of Candida albicans,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e80842, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Luk, M. Yang, L. T. Jensen, Y. Bourbonnais, and V. C. Culotta, “Manganese activation of superoxide dismutase 2 in the mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 24, pp. 22715–22720, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. A. McCauliff, Z. Xu, R. Li et al., “Multiple surface regions on the Niemann-pick C2 protein facilitate intracellular cholesterol transport,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 290, no. 45, pp. 27321–27331, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus