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Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 737324, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/737324
Review Article

Nonimmune Cells Contribute to Crosstalk between Immune Cells and Inflammatory Mediators in the Innate Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

1Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina
2Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
3Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain

Received 6 May 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011

Academic Editor: Mauricio M. Rodrigues

Copyright © 2012 Maria Pilar Aoki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chagas myocarditis, which is caused by infection with the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the major infectious heart disease worldwide. Innate recognition through toll-like receptors (TLRs) on immune cells has not only been revealed to be critical for defense against T. cruzi but has also been involved in triggering the pathology. Subsequent studies revealed that this parasite activates nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain- (NOD-)like receptors and several particular transcription factors in TLR-independent manner. In addition to professional immune cells, T. cruzi infects and resides in different parenchyma cells. The innate receptors in nonimmune target tissues could also have an impact on host response. Thus, the outcome of the myocarditis or the inflamed liver relies on an intricate network of inflammatory mediators and signals given by immune and nonimmune cells. In this paper, we discuss the evidence of innate immunity to the parasite developed by the host, with emphasis on the crosstalk between immune and nonimmune cell responses.