Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 761269, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/761269
Review Article

The Importance of Definitive Diagnosis in Chronic Schistosomiasis, with Reference to Schistosoma haematobium

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

Received 6 January 2012; Accepted 9 April 2012

Academic Editor: Francisca Mutapi

Copyright © 2012 Clive Shiff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Hotez and A. Fenwick, “Schistosomiasis in Africa: an emerging tragedy in our new global health decade,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 3, no. 9, article e485, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. H. Mostafa, S. A. Sheweita, and P. J. O'Connor, “Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97–111, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. L. Shane, J. R. Verani, B. Abudho et al., “Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Western Kenya,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 5, no. 1, article e951, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Mharakurwa, C. Simoloka, P. E. Thuma, C. J. Shiff, and D. J. Sullivan, “PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples,” Malaria Journal, vol. 5, article 103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. A. Ibironke, A. E. Phillips, A. Garba, S. M. Lamine, and C. J. Shiff, “Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by detection of specific DNA fragments from filtered urine samples,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 998–1001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Enk, G. Oliveira E Silva, and N. B. Rodrigues, “A salting out and resin procedure for extracting Schistosoma mansoni DNA from human urine samples,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 3, article 115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. A. Ibironke, A. Koukounari, S. Asaolu, I. Moustaki, and C. J. Shiff, “Validation of a new test for Schistosoma haematobium based on detection of the Dra1 DNA repeat fragment in urine: evaluation through latent class analysis,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID e1464, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Gelfand, “The effects of bilharziasis in Rhodesia,” Central African Journal of Medicine, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1–11, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. H. King and M. Dangerfield-Cha, “The unacknowledged impact of chronic schistosomiasis,” Chronic Illness, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 65–79, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. L. Hodder, A. A. F. Mahmoud, K. Sorenson et al., “Predisposition to urinary tract epithelial metaplasia in Schistosoma haematobium infection,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 63, no. 3-4, pp. 133–138, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. J. Shiff, R. Veltri, J. Naples et al., “Ultrasound verification of bladder damage is associated with known biomarkers of bladder cancer in adults chronically infected with Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 847–854, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. E. Thomas, M. T. Bassett, L. B. Sigola, and P. T. Taylor, “Relationship between bladder cancer incidence, Schistosoma haematobium infection, and geographical region in Zimbabwe,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 551–553, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Wagatsuma, M. E. Aryeetey, D. A. Sack, R. H. Morrow, C. Hatz, and S. Kojima, “Resolution and resurgence of Schistosoma haematobium-induced pathology after community-based chemotherapy in Ghana, as detected by ultrasound,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 179, no. 6, pp. 1515–1522, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Koukounari, J. P. Webster, C. A. Donnelly et al., “Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages NorthWest of Accra, Ghana,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 435–441, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Hamburger, N. He, I. Abbasi, R. M. Ramzy, J. Jourdane, and A. Ruppel, “Polymerase chain reaction assay based on a highly repeated sequence of Schistosoma haematobium: a potential tool for monitoring schistosome-infested water,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 907–911, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Abbasi, C. H. King, E. M. Muchiri, and J. Hamburger, “Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification: identification of infected snails from early prepatency,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 427–432, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus