Table 1: Drugs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Serial numberName of the drugMode of actionMode of administrationAdverse effectsReferences

1Pentavalent antimonialsInhibition of glycolysis and β-oxidation of fatty acids of parasiteIntralesional for CL
Abdominal pain, erythema, nausea, toxicity (hepatic, pancreas, renal, muscular, and skeletal cardiothrombocytopenia or leukopenia)[2, 60, 61]

2Amphotericin BBinding to parasite’s membrane sterols and changing its permeability selective to K+ and Mg2+Liposomal formulations
Deoxycholate formulations
Fever, nausea, hypokalemia, anorexia, leukopenia, kidney failure, and heart problems[2, 5961]

3 PentamidineInterferes with DNA synthesis and modifies the morphology of kinetoplastParenteral
Intramuscular administration
Pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, myalgia, hypertension, headache, hypoglycemia, and transient hyperglycemia[1, 2, 60, 61]

4MiltefosineAssociated with phospholipid biosynthesis and alkyl-lipid metabolism in Leishmania Oral for VLNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and raised creatinine [1, 2, 59, 60]

5ParomomycinInhibition of protein biosynthesis in sensitive organismTopical for CL
Parenteral for VL
Erythema, pain, oedema, and ototoxicity (damage to internal ear)[1, 2, 60]