Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 287651, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/287651
Review Article

Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

Headquarters 2nd Division, Australian Army, Randwick Barracks, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia

Received 24 July 2015; Accepted 13 September 2015

Academic Editor: Remington L. Nevin

Copyright © 2015 Stuart McCarthy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Australian Defence Force, ADFP 1.2.2: Force Health Protection, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 1st edition, 2015.
  2. N. J. Elmes, “Malaria notifications in the Australian Defence Force from 1998 to 2007,” International Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 130–135, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Surgeon General Australian Defence Force, Health Directive No 215: Malaria, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2013.
  4. Australian Defence Force, ADFP 714: Operational Stress Management, Headquarters Australian Defence Force, Canberra, Australia, 1st edition, 1997, http://www.defence.gov.au/ADFWC/Documents/DoctrineLibrary/ADFP/ADFP%201.2.1.pdf.
  5. Australian Defence Force, Capability Through Mental Fitness: 2011 Australian Defence Force Mental Health and Wellbeing Strategy, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2011, http://www.defence.gov.au/health/dmh/docs/2011ADFMentalHealthandWellbeingStrategy.pdf.
  6. Australian Defence Force, ADFP 1.2.1: Mental Health Support to Operations, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 1st edition, 2014.
  7. Australian Defence Force, ADDP 3.22: Force Protection, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 1st edition, 2015.
  8. E. Cameron Ritchie, J. Block, and R. Lee Nevin, “Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 224–235, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. L. Nevin, “Idiosyncratic quinoline central nervous system toxicity: historical insights into the chronic neurological sequelae of mefloquine,” International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 118–125, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. L. Nevin, “Mefloquine and post-traumatic stress disorder,” in Forensic and Ethical Issues in Military Behavioural Health, E. C. Ritchie, Ed., chapter 19, Borden Institute, Surgeon General US Army, Falls Church, Va, USA, 2014, http://www.cs.amedd.army.mil/FileDownloadpublic.aspx?docid=59eea54e-292d-4a35-9117-d9be6c40dac3. View at Google Scholar
  11. F. O. ter Kuile, F. Nosten, M. Thieren et al., “High-dose mefloquine in the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 166, no. 6, pp. 1393–1400, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Roche Products, Lariam (Mefloquine Hydrochloride) Product Information 141107, Roche Products, Dee Why, Australia, 2014, http://www.roche-australia.com/content/dam/internet/corporate/roche/en_AU/files/miscellaneous/lariam-pi.pdf.
  13. P. Schlagenhauf, M. Adamcova, L. Regep, M. T. Schaerer, and H.-G. Rhein, “The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis,” Malaria Journal, vol. 9, article 357, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. M. Croft, “A lesson learnt: the rise and fall of Lariam and Halfan,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 170–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. J. Kitchener, “The military experience of mefloquine malaria chemoprophylaxis,” ADF Health Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 34–38, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  16. World Health Organization and F. Hoffmann-La Roche, “Review of the central nervous system adverse events related to the anti-malarial drug, Mefloquine (1985–1990),” Tech. Rep. WHO/MAL/91.1063, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/61327/1/WHO_MAL_91.1063.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  17. P. Schlagenhauf, “Mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis 1992—1998: a review,” Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 122–133, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. H. Chen, M. E. Wilson, and P. Schlagenhauf, “Controversies and misconceptions in malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 20, pp. 2251–2263, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Dow, R. Bauman, D. Caridha et al., “Mefloquine induces dose-related neurological effects in a rat model,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 1045–1053, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. E. Hood, J. W. Jenkins, D. Milatovic, L. Rongzhu, and M. Aschner, “Mefloquine induces oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in primary rat cortical neurons,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 518–523, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Milatovic, J. W. Jenkins, J. E. Hood, Y. Yu, L. Rongzhu, and M. Aschner, “Mefloquine neurotoxicity is mediated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 578–585, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Geng, L. Kohli, B. J. Klocke, and K. A. Roth, “Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 473–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. H. Shin, S. J. Park, Y. K. Jo et al., “Suppression of autophagy exacerbates Mefloquine-mediated cell death,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 515, no. 2, pp. 162–167, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Toovey, “Mefloquine neurotoxicity: a literature review,” Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 2–6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Magill, S. Cersovsky, and R. DeFraites, “Special considerations for US military deployments,” in Health Information for International Travel, chapter 8, Centers for Disease Control, 2014, http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-8-advising-travelers-with-specific-needs/special-considerations-for-us-military-deployments. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. C. McFarlane, S. E. Hodson, M. Van Hooff, and C. Davies, Mental Health in the Australian Defence Force: 2010 ADF Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2011, http://www.defence.gov.au/Health/DMH/MentalHealthReformProgram.asp#MHRP.
  27. D. Dunt, Review of Mental Health Care in the ADF and Transition Through Discharge, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2009, http://www.defence.gov.au/Health/HealthPortal/ADFMentalHealthReform.asp.
  28. Department of Defence, Defence Instructions (General) Pers 16-28: Operational Mental Health Screening, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2014.
  29. Surgeon General Australian Defence Force, Health Directive No 264: Management of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder in the Australian Defence Force for Primary Care Providers, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2010.
  30. Surgeon General Australian Defence Force, Health Directive No. 293: Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Australian Defence Force, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2013.
  31. S. Gaidow and S. Boey, Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study, Defence Science and Technology Organization, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2005, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a434592.pdf.
  32. S. Gaidow, “Quest for credibility: Australian defence risk management framework,” Defense & Security Analysis, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 379–387, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. W. Hoge, “Neuropsychiatric illnesses in war veterans,” in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, D. L. Longo, A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper et al., Eds., McGraw-Hill, 18th edition, 2012, https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=331&sectionId=40727217. View at Google Scholar
  34. Therapeutic Goods Administration, The Therapeutic Goods Administration's Risk Management Approach to the Regulation of Therapeutic Goods, Ver. 4.0, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, 2011, https://www.tga.gov.au/tgas-risk-management-approach.
  35. I. R. Edwards, B.-E. Wiholm, and C. Martinez, “Concepts in risk-benefit assessment. A simple merit analysis of a medicine?” Drug Safety, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Healy, D. Mangin, and D. Antonuccio, “Data based medicine and clinical judgement,” International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 111–121, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Curtin and P. Schulz, “Assessing the benefit: risk ratio of a drug—randomized and naturalistic evidence,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Malterud, “The art and science of clinical knowledge: evidence beyond measures and numbers,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9279, pp. 397–400, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. M. Lesko and A. A. Mitchell, “The use of randomized controlled trials for pharmacoepidemiologic studies,” in Textbook of Pharmacoepidemiology, B. L. Strom, S. E. Kimmel, and S. Hennessy, Eds., chapter 16, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. E. L. Hannan, “Randomized clinical trials and observational studies: guidelines for assessing respective strengths and limitations,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. N. A. Patsopoulos, “A pragmatic view on pragmatic trials,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 217–224, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Kelsall, R. Macdonell, M. Sim et al., “Neurological status of Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War and the effect of medical and chemical exposures,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 810–819, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. R. Blanck, J. Hiatt, K. C. Hyams et al., “Unexplained illnesses among Desert Storm veterans: a search for causes, treatment, and cooperation,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 262–268, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. W. Haley and T. L. Kurt, “Self-reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical combinations in the Gulf War. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 3, pp. 231–237, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Kim and J. W. Kim, “Toxic encephalopathy,” Safety and Health at Work, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 243–256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. A. Firestone and W. T. Longstrength, “Neurologic and psychiatric disorders,” in Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, L. Rosenstock, M. Cullen, C. Brodkin, and C. Redlich, Eds., pp. 645–660, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  47. Y. Odagaki, “Encephalopathy associated with psychotropic drug therapy,” in Miscellanea on Encephalopathies—A Second Look, R. Tanasescu, Ed., pp. 167–198, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2012, http://www.intechopen.com/books/miscellanea-on-encephalopathies-a-second-look/encephalopathy-associated-with-psychotropic-drug-therapy. View at Google Scholar
  48. N. Hansen, “Drug-induced encephalopathy,” in Miscellanea on Encephalopathies—A Second Look, R. Tanasescu, Ed., chapter 3, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. D. E. Hartman, “Neuropsychological toxicology: identification and assessment of neurotoxic syndromes,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45–65, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. R. Dobbs, Ed., Clinical Neurotoxicology: Syndromes, Substances, Environments, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2009, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780323052603.
  51. R. G. Lucchini, M. A. Riva, V. A. Sironi, and A. Porro, “Torvis oculis: occupational roots of behavioral neurotoxicology in the last two centuries and beyond,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 652–659, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. K. Anger and M. G. Cassitto, “Individual-administered human behavioral test batteries to identify neurotoxic chemicals,” Environmental Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 93–106, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. W. K. Anger, “Neurobehavioural tests and systems to assess neurotoxic exposures in the workplace and community,” Occupational & Environmental Medicine, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 531–538, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Elsner and B. Weiss, Eds., Risk Assessment for Neurobehavioral Toxicity, Diane Publishing, Darby, Mont, USA, 1997.
  55. G. J. Harry, B. Kulig, M. Lotti et al., Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment for Human Health: Principles and Approaches Organization, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001, http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42362.
  56. R. Lucchini, E. Albini, L. Benedetti, and L. Alessio, “Neurobehavioral science in hazard identification and risk assessment of neurotoxic agents—what are the requirements for further development?” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 427–437, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. E. Andersen, “Development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic and physiologically based pharmacodymamic models for applications in toxicology and risk assessment,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 79, no. 1–3, pp. 35–44, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Rouveix, F. Bricaire, C. Michon et al., “Mefloquine and an acute brain syndrome,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 577–578, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Marsepoil, J. Petithory, J. M. Faucher, P. Ho, E. Viriot, and F. Benaiche, “Encephalopathy and memory disorders during treatments with mefloquine,” Revue de Medecine Interne, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 788–791, 1993 (French). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Bernard, J. Le Camus, J. Sarrouy et al., “Toxic encephalopathy caused by mefloquine?” Presse Medicale, vol. 16, no. 33, pp. 1654–1655, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. L. Nevin, “Limbic encephalopathy and central vestibulopathy caused by mefloquine: a case report,” Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 144–151, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. Lebain, C. Juliard, J.-P. Davy, and S. Dollfus, “Neuropsychiatric side effects with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis: two case reports,” L'Encéphale, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 67–70, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. B. Whitworth and W. Aichhorn, “First-time diagnosis of severe depression: induced by mefloquine?” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 399–400, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. T. Lysack, C. L. Lysack, and B. L. Kvern, “A severe adverse reaction to mefloquine and chloroquine prophylaxis,” Australian Family Physician, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1119–1120, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Even, S. Friedman, and K. Lanouar, “Bipolar disorder after mefloquine treatment,” Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 252–253, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. N. Jousset, M. Guilleux, L. de Gentile, A. Le Bouil, A. Turcant, and C. Rougé-Maillart, “Spectacular suicide associated with mefloquine,” Presse Medicale, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 789–792, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Watt-Smith, K. Mehta, and C. Scully, “Mefloquine-induced trigeminal sensory neuropathy,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 163–165, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. C. Chester and P. Sandroni, “Case report: peripheral polyneuropathy and mefloquine prophylaxis,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1008–1009, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Jha, R. Kumar, and R. Kumar, “Mefloquine toxicity presenting with polyneuropathy—a report of two cases in India,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 594–596, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Speich and A. Haller, “Central anticholinergic syndrome with the antimalarial drug mefloquine,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 1, pp. 57–58, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Fusetti, A. Eibenstein, V. Corridore et al., “Mefloquine and ototoxicity: a report of 3 cases,” La Clinica Terapeutica, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 379–382, 1999 (Italian). View at Google Scholar
  72. A. Bhanji, C. Atkins, and M. Karim, “Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report of palpitations and dizziness following prophylactic mefloquine use,” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 577–581, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. M. Croft and P. Garner, “Mefloquine for preventing malaria in non-immune adult travellers,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 4, Article ID CD000138, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. A. Jacquerioz and A. M. Croft, “Drugs for preventing malaria in travellers,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD006491, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. A. Phillips and R. B. Kass, “User acceptability patterns for mefloquine and doxycycline malaria chemoprophylaxis,” Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. Overbosch, H. Schilthuis, U. Bienzle et al., “Atovaquone-proguanil versus mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis in nonimmune travelers: results from a randomized, double-blind study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1015–1021, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. M. van Riemsdijk, M. G. J. M. Sturkenboom, J. M. Ditters, R. J. Ligthelm, D. Overbosch, and B. H. C. Stricker, “Atovaquone plus chloroguanide versus mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis: a focus on neuropsychiatric adverse events,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 294–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. E. Boudreau, B. Schuster, J. Sanchez et al., “Tolerability of prophylactic Lariam regimens,” Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 257–265, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. Fujii, K. Kaku, T. Jelinek, and M. Kimura, “Malaria and mefloquine prophylaxis use among Japan ground self-defense force personnel deployed in East Timor,” Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 226–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. P. C. C. Hopperus Buma, P. P. A. M. van Thiel, H. O. Lobel et al., “Long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine in Dutch marines in Cambodia,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 173, no. 6, pp. 1506–1509, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. M. J. Croft, T. C. Clayton, and M. J. World, “Side effects of mefloquine prophylaxis for malaria: an independent randomized controlled trial,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 199–203, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. S. Peragallo, G. Sabatinelli, and G. Sarnicola, “Compliance and tolerability of mefloquine and chloroquine plus proguanil for long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis in groups at particular risk (the military),” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 73–77, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Schlagenhauf, R. Steffen, H. Lobel et al., “Mefloquine tolerability during chemoprophylaxis: focus on adverse event assessments, stereochemistry and compliance,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 485–494, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. Andersson, H. H. Askling, B. Falck, and L. Rombo, “Well-tolerated chemoprophylaxis uniformly prevented Swedish soldiers from Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Liberia, 2004–2006,” Military Medicine, vol. 173, no. 12, pp. 1194–1198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. H. Rieckmann, A. E. T. Yeo, D. R. Davis, D. C. Hutton, P. F. Wheatley, and R. Simpson, “Recent military experience with malaria chemoprophylaxis,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 446–449, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. D. Shanks, P. Roessler, M. D. Edstein, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis in Australian soldiers deployed to United Nations missions in Somalia and Cambodia,” Military Medicine, vol. 160, no. 9, pp. 443–445, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. E. Nasveld, M. D. Edstein, M. Reid et al., “Randomized, double-blind study of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of tafenoquine versus mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune subjects,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 792–798, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. J. Kitchener, P. E. Nasveld, R. M. Gregory, and M. D. Edstein, “Mefloquine and doxycycline malaria prophylaxis in Australian soldiers in East Timor,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 182, no. 4, pp. 168–171, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. De Vries, Unexplained Somatic Symptoms in Cambodia Veterans: The Role of Mefloquine, Multiple Vaccinations and Morbidity, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 2002, http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/rug01:000725826.
  90. A. Ringqvist, P. Bech, B. Glenthøj, and E. Petersen, “Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: a follow-up on Danish adverse event reports,” Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. Vaillancourt, J. Ma, and J. Sampalis, “Assessment of risks associated with short-term use of mefloquine in Canadian forces members: a descriptive cross-sectional study,” Canadian Pharmacists Journal, vol. 138, no. 7, article 42, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. T. Weinke, M. Trautmann, T. Held et al., “Neuropsychiatric side effects after the use of mefloquine,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 86–91, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Repatriation Medical Authority, RMA Practices and Procedures, 2013, http://www.rma.gov.au/foi/Practices_procedures-Apr13.pdf.
  94. D. Dunt, Independent Study into Suicide in the Ex-Service Community, Department of Veterans' Affairs, Australian Government, 2009, http://www.dva.gov.au/health-and-wellbeing/research-and-development/health-studies/independent-study-suicide-ex-service.
  95. Therapeutic Goods Administration, Note for Guidance on Good Clinical Practice (CPMP/ICH/135/95), Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, 2000, https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/note-guidance-good-clinical-practice.
  96. D. Venes and C. W. Taber, Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 20th edition, 1920.
  97. A. Perry and R. E. Schmidt, “Cancer therapy-associated CNS neuropathology: an update and review of the literature,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 197–212, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. F. E. Froklage, J. C. Reijneveld, and J. J. Heimans, “Central neurotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy: pharmacogenetic insights,” Pharmacogenomics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 379–395, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. G. Weiss, “The interrelationship of tropical disease and mental disorder: conceptual framework and literature review (Part I-Malaria),” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 121–200, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. K. Mishra and C. R. J. C. Newton, “Diagnosis and management of the neurological complications of falciparum malaria,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 189–198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. J. Ohnmacht, A. R. Patel, and R. E. Lutz, “Antimalarials. 7. Bis(trifluoromethyl)-α-(2-piperidyl)-4-quinolinemethanols,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 926–928, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. Associated Press, “Army curbs prescriptions of anti-malaria drug,” USA Today, 2011, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/military/story/2011-11-19/military-malaria-drug/51311040/1. View at Google Scholar
  103. G. LaFleche, “The meflomares: controversial drug still given to Canadian soldiers,” St Catherines Standard, 2014, http://www.stcatharinesstandard.ca/2014/12/22/the-meflomares-controversial-drug-still-given-to-canadian-soldiers. View at Google Scholar
  104. J. Owen, “Lariam: hundreds of British soldiers suffering from mental illness after being given anti-malarial drug,” The Independent, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/lariam-hundreds-of-british-soldiers-suffering-from-mental-illness-after-being-given-antimalarial-drug-10179792.html. View at Google Scholar
  105. Commonwealth of Australia, Hansard, Parliament House, Canberra, Australia, 2006, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansardr%2F2006-10-12%2F0177%22.
  106. K. H. Rieckmann, A. W. Sweeney, M. D. Edstein, R. D. Cooper, and S. P. Frances, “Army Malaria Institute—its evolution and achievements. Third decade (1st half): 1985–1990,” Journal of Military and Veterans' Health, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 59–70, 2012, http://jmvh.org/article/army-malaria-institute-its-evolution-and-achievements-third-decade-1st-half-1985-1990/. View at Google Scholar
  107. K. H. Rieckmann, S. P. Frances, B. M. Kotecka et al., “Army Malaria Institute—its evolution and achievements. Third decade (2nd Half):1990–1995,” Journal of Military and Veterans' Health, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 36–56, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. L. H. Schmidt, R. Crosby, J. Rasco, and D. Vaughan, “Antimalarial activities of various 4-quinolinemethanols with special attention to WR-142,490 (Mefloquine),” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1011–1030, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. L. H. Schmidt, R. Crosby, J. Rasco, and D. Vaughan, “Antimalarial activities of the 4-quinolinemethanols WR-184,806 and WR-226,253,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 680–689, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. R. L. Nevin, Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: Antimalarial Drugs That Can Cause Vestibular Dysfunction, Vestibular Disorders Association, Portland, Ore, USA, 2014, http://vestibular.org/sites/default/files/page_files/Documents/Mefloquine_Neurotoxicity.pdf.
  111. L. W. Kitchen, D. W. Vaughn, and D. R. Skillman, “Role of US military research programs in the development of US Food and Drug Administration: approved antimalarial drugs,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 67–71, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. U.S. Army Research Office, Neurotoxicity Associated with Mefloquine, an Anti-Malarial Drug: Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR): Solicitation Topic Number A06-T034 (Army), 2006, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osbp/sbir/solicitations/sttr2006/army06.htm.
  113. US Food and Drug Administration, FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA Approves Label Changes for Antimalarial Drug Mefloquine Hydrochloride due to Risk of Serious Psychiatric and Nerve Side Effects, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Md, USA, 2013, http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM362232.pdf.
  114. V. B. Smocovitis, “Desperately seeking quinine: the malaria threat drove the Allies' WWII ‘Cinchona Mission’,” Modern Drug Discovery, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 57–58, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  115. A. W. Sweeney, Malaria Frontline: Australian Army Research During World War II, Melbourne University Publishing, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 2003.
  116. F. Fenner and A. W. Sweeney, “Malaria in new guinea during the second world war: the land headquarters medical research unit,” Parassitologia, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 65–68, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. W. Sweeney, “The possibility of an ‘X’ factor. The first documented drug resistance of human malaria,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1035–1061, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. F. Fenner, “Malaria control in Papua New Guinea in the Second World War: from disaster to successful prophylaxis and the dawn of DDT,” Parassitologia, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 55–63, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. N. H. Fairley, “The chemotherapeutic control of malaria,” Swiss Medical Weekly, vol. 76, pp. 925–932, 1946. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. H. Most, “Clinical trials of antimalarial drugs,” in Internal Medicine in World War II, Volume II, Infectious Diseases, W. P. Havens, Ed., chapter 18, pp. 526–598, U.S. Army Medical Department, Washington, DC, USA, 1963, http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/infectiousdisvolii/chapter18.htm. View at Google Scholar
  121. A. C. Loken and W. Haymaker, “Pamaquine poisoning in man, with a clinicopathologic study of one case,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 341–352, 1949. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. I. G. Schmidt, “Effects of pamaquine on the central nervous system,” The Anatomical Record, vol. 97, no. 3, article 367, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  123. J. Maier, F. B. Bang, and N. G. Hairston, “A comparison of the effectiveness of quinacrine and quinine against falciparum malaria,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. s1–28, no. 3, pp. 401–406, 1948. View at Google Scholar
  124. M. L. Sheppeck and L. E. Wexberg, “Toxic psychoses associated with administration of quinacrine,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 489–510, 1946. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. Perk, “Mepacrine Psychosis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 93, no. 393, pp. 756–771, 1947. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. G. C. Dockeray, “Acute mepacrine poisoning,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 275–278, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. F. Bauer, “Quinacrine hydrochloride drug eruption (tropical lichenoid dermatitis). Its early and late sequelae and its malignant potential: a review,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 239–248, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. K. H. Rieckmann and A. W. Sweeney, “Army malaria institute: its evolution and achievements. First decade: 1965–1975,” Journal of Military and Veterans' Health, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. K. H. Rieckmann, Q. Cheng, S. P. Frances et al., “Army Malaria Institute: its evolution and achievements. Fourth decade (2nd half): 2000–2005,” Journal of Military and Veterans' Health, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 10–41, 2015, http://jmvh.org/article/army-malaria-institute-its-evolution-and-achievements-fourth-decade-2nd-half-2000-2005/. View at Google Scholar
  130. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Chronic Solvent Encephalopathy, No. 71 of 2013, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2013, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  131. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Depressive Disorder, No. 83 of 2015, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2015, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  132. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Anxiety Disorder, No. 102 of 2014, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2014, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  133. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Bipolar Disorder, No. 27 of 2009, Australian Government, Queensland, Australia, 2009, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  134. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Suicide and Attempted Suicide, No. 11 of 2010, Australian Government, Queensland, Australia, 2010, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  135. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Trigeminal Neuropathy, No. 79 of 2015, Australian Government, Queensland, Australia, 2015, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  136. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Peripheral Neuropathy, No. 74 of 2014, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2014, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  137. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Meniere's Disease, No. 59 of 2006, Australian Government, Queensland, Australia, 2006, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  138. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Myasthenia Gravis, No. 75 of 2015, Australian Government, Queensland, Australia, 2015, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  139. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Sensorineural Hearing Loss, No. 5 of 2011, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2011, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  140. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Tinnitus, No. 33 of 2012, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2012, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  141. Repatriation Medical Authority, Statement of Principles Concerning Heart Block, No. 1 of 2014, Australian Government, Brisbane, Australia, 2014, http://www.rma.gov.au/SOP/main.htm.
  142. A. S. Hamerschlag, “Under secretary for health’s letter: possible long-term health effects from the malarial prophylaxis mefloquine (lariam),” IL 10-2004-007, U.S. Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Washington, DC, USA, 2004, http://www.pdhealth.mil/downloads/VA_10-2004-007_Possible_Long-Term_Health_Effects_MalarialProphylaxis_Mefloquine.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  143. D. Ding, Q. Wei-Dong, Y. Dong-Zhen, J. Hai-Yan, and R. Salvi, “Ototoxic effects of mefloquine in cochlear organotypic cultures,” Journal of Otology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 76–85, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. D. Yu, D. Ding, H. Jiang, D. Stolzberg, and R. Salvi, “Mefloquine damage vestibular hair cells in organotypic cultures,” Neurotoxicity Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. R. Jones, G. Kunsman, B. Levine, M. Smith, and C. Stahl, “Mefloquine distribution in postmortem cases,” Forensic Science International, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 29–32, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. L. R. Derogatis and K. L. Savitz, “The SCL-90-R, brief symptom inventory, and matching clinical rating scales,” in The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment, M. E. Maruish, Ed., pp. 679–724, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1999, http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1999-02767-039. View at Google Scholar
  147. J. E. Cooper, “The development of the present state examination (P.S.E.),” in Psychiatry: The State of the Art, P. Pichot, P. Berner, R. Wolf, and K. Thau, Eds., pp. 133–139, Springer Science & Business Media, New York, NY, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  148. J. E. Ware Jr. and B. Gandek, “Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 903–912, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. Roche Products, “Lariam (mefloquine hydrochloride),” Product Information 130802, Roche Products, Dee Why, Australia, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  150. D. E. Schwartz, W. Weber, D. Richard-Lenoble, and M. Gentilini, “Kinetic studies of mefloquine and of one of its metabolites, Ro 21-5104, in the dog and in man,” Acta Tropica, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 238–242, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. J. Karbwang and N. J. White, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of mefloquine,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 264–279, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. M. Brisson and P. Brisson, “Compliance with antimalaria chemoprophylaxis in a combat zone,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 587–590, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. M. S. Peragallo, A. M. Croft, and S. J. Kitchener, “Malaria during a multinational military deployment: the comparative experience of the Italian, British and Australian Armed Forces in East Timor,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 481–482, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. R. A. Pennie, G. Koren, and C. Crevoisier, “Steady state pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in long-term travellers,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 459–462, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. S. Baudry, Y. T. Pham, B. Baune et al., “Stereoselective passage of mefloquine through the blood-brain barrier in the rat,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1086–1090, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. G. S. Dow, M. L. Koenig, L. Wolf et al., “The antimalarial potential of 4-quinolinecarbinolamines may be limited due to neurotoxicity and cross-resistance in mefloquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 2624–2632, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. A. Dassonville-Klimpt, A. Jonet, M. Pillon et al., “Mefloquine derivatives: synthesis, mechanisms of action, antimicrobial activities,” in Science against Microbial Pathogens: Communicating Current Research and Technological Advances, A. Méndez-Vilas, Ed., pp. 23–35, Formatex, Badajoz, Spain, 2011, http://www.formatex.org/microbiology3/chapters1.html. View at Google Scholar
  158. R. Chevli and C. D. Fitch, “The antimalarial drug mefloquine binds to membrane phospholipids,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 581–586, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. S. B. de Lagerie, E. Comets, C. Gautrand et al., “Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers with and without the P-gp inhibitor elacridar (GF1210918) in mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 1214–1222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. G. S. Dow, D. Caridha, M. Goldberg et al., “Transcriptional profiling of mefloquine-induced disruption of calcium homeostasis in neurons in vitro,” Genomics, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 539–550, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. V. K. Lall, M. Dutschmann, J. Deuchars, and S. A. Deuchars, “The anti-malarial drug mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 19, no. 1, article 103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. U. Wojda, E. Salinska, and J. Kuznicki, “Calcium ions in neuronal degeneration,” IUBMB Life, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 575–590, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. T. Hosoi and K. Ozawa, “Endoplasmic reticulum stress in disease: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities,” Clinical Science, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 19–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. Y. T. Pham, F. Nosten, R. Farinotti, N. J. White, and F. Gimenez, “Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers in fatal cerebral malaria,” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. A. Janowsky, A. J. Eshleman, R. A. Johnson et al., “Mefloquine and psychotomimetics share neurotransmitter receptor and transporter interactions in vitro,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 231, no. 14, pp. 2771–2783, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. R. E. Howes, K. E. Battle, A. W. Satyagraha, J. K. Baird, and S. I. Hay, “G6PD deficiency: global distribution, genetic variants and primaquine therapy,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 81, pp. 133–201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. R. L. Nevin, “Epileptogenic potential of mefloquine chemoprophylaxis: a pathogenic hypothesis,” Malaria Journal, vol. 5, no. 8, p. 188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. R. Bryant, “Post-traumatic stress disorder vs traumatic brain injury,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 251–262, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. M. B. Stein and T. W. McAllister, “Exploring the convergence of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 166, no. 7, pp. 768–776, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. D. G. Amen, C. A. Raji, K. Willeumier et al., “Functional neuroimaging distinguishes posttraumatic stress disorder from traumatic brain injury in focused and large community datasets,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7, Article ID e0129659, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 5th edition, 2015.
  172. D. Warden, “Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars,” Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 398–402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. F. Khan, I. J. Baguley, and I. D. Cameron, “Rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 178, no. 6, pp. 290–295, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. L. Trevena, I. Cameron, and M. Porwal, Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care of People Living with Traumatic Brain Injury in the Community, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 2004, http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/60530/20060706-0000/full.pdf.
  175. D. E. J. Ryan, Repatriation Medical Authority: Memorandum, Brisbane, Australia, 2013, http://www.rma.gov.au/foi/What_disease.pdf.
  176. G. A. Rumble, M. McKean, and D. Pearce, Report of the Review of Allegations of Sexual and Other Abuse in Defence: Facing the Problems of the Past, DLA Piper, Canberra, Australia, 2011, http://www.defence.gov.au/pathwaytochange/docs/dlapiper/Background.asp.
  177. S. J. Cruikshank, M. Hopperstad, M. Younger, B. W. Connors, D. C. Spray, and M. Srinivas, “Potent block of Cx36 and Cx50 gap junction channels by mefloquine,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 33, pp. 12364–12369, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. R. L. Nevin, “Mefloquine blockade of connexin 36 and connexin 43 gap junctions and risk of suicide,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. e1–e2, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Veteran Mental Health Strategy: A Ten Year Framework 2013–2023, Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Canberra, Australia, 2013, http://at-ease.dva.gov.au/veterans/resources/dva-mental-health-strategy/.
  180. A. W. Sweeney, C. R. B. Blackburn, and K. H. Rieckmann, “Short report: the activity of pamaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline drug, against sporozoite-induced infections of Plasmodium vivax (New Guinea strains),” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 187–189, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. J. Kavanagh, Stress and Performance: A Review of the Literature and Its Applicability to the Military, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif, USA, 2005, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR192.html.
  182. A. L. Chester, A. M. Edwards, M. Crowe, and F. Quirk, “Physiological, biochemical, and psychological responses to environmental survival training in the Royal Australian Air Force,” Military Medicine, vol. 178, no. 7, pp. e829–e835, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. Surgeon General Australian Defence Force, Health Directive No. 222: Health Requirements for Deployed Defence Members, Department of Defence, Canberra, Australia, 2012.
  184. Department of Defence, Form PM589: Post Deployment Health Screen, 2011.
  185. A. C. Iversen, L. van Staden, J. H. Hughes et al., “The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 11, article 31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. C. W. Hoge, C. A. Castro, S. C. Messer, D. McGurk, D. I. Cotting, and R. L. Koffman, “Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. M. Gould, A. Adler, M. Zamorski et al., “Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 148–156, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. News Report, “Our Timor troops in drug trials,” Sunday Mail, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  189. S. M. McCarthy, Submission to the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee Inquiry into the Mental Health of Australian Defence Force Serving Personnel, 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=704ff2ea-faa0-4e68-afc8-545b1579fc1f&subId=353818.
  190. B. Burton, “Australian army faces legal action over mefloquine,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7474, article 1062, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. J. K. Aronson, Meyler's Side Effects of Psychiatric Drugs, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008.
  192. D. J. Nutt and M. Sharpe, “Uncritical positive regard? Issues in the efficacy and safety of psychotherapy,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. L. Gaston, Limitations of Trauma-Focused Therapies for Treating PTSD: A Perspective, Traumatys, Québec, Canada, 2015, http://www.traumatys.com/Limitations%20of%20Trauma-Focused%20Therapies%20(Gaston,%202015).pdf.