Table 3: Summary of experimental methodology from four key studies investigating the impact of B. burgdorferi and B. microti coinfection.

Krause et al. (1996) [18]Human subjects, = 250
B. burgdorferi seropositive: = 214
B. microti seropositive: = 10
 Coinfected: = 26
Epidemiological analyses
Clinical evaluation: physical exam and medical history
Serological assessment: blood smears, ELISA, western blot, IFA, and PCR
Statistical analyses: analysis and Student’s -test

Wang et al. (2000) [22]Human subjects, = 336
 Clinical Lyme disease: = 171
 Acute concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis: = 4
B. burgdorferi seropositive: = 112
B. microti seropositive: = 48
B. burgdorferi and B. microti seropositive: = 27
Epidemiological analyses
Clinical evaluation: physical exam and medical history
Serological assessment: western blot and antibody-capture EIA
for B. burgdorferi; IFA for B. microti
Statistical analyses: analysis and Student’s -test

Moro et al. (2002) [54]Mouse model
Species: C3H/HeJ and BALB/c
Histopathological analysis for arthritis and carditis
Spirochete quantification: competitive PCR
Tissue cytokine analysis: ELISA

Coleman et al. (2005) [55]Mouse model
Species: C3H/HeN and BALB/c
Histopathological analysis for arthritis, carditis, and splenomegaly
Spirochete quantification: quantitative PCR
Serological assessment: ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assays
(IFA), complete blood count, and blood smears