Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 4692424, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4692424
Research Article

Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

1Biochemistry Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Nigeria
2Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Nigeria
3Virology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Nigeria
4Central Diagnostics Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Nigeria
5Haematology Department, Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, PMB 01, Vom, Nigeria
6Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Bama Road, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
7Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, PMB 0248, Ibadan, Nigeria
8Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, PMB 0248, Ibadan, Nigeria
9Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
10Department of Epidemiology, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon
11Microbiology Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
12National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria
13Africa Education Initiative (NEF), 9401 Sentinel Ridge, Eagleville, PA 19403, USA

Received 30 September 2015; Revised 11 January 2016; Accepted 12 January 2016

Academic Editor: Emmanuel Serrano Ferron

Copyright © 2016 J. G. Gotep et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant () dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis.