Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 7170534, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7170534
Review Article

Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

1Tegnervägen 6B, 641 36 Katrineholm, Sweden
2Department of Biological Control Technology, Al-Musaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Al-Musaib, Iraq

Received 31 October 2015; Accepted 21 April 2016

Academic Editor: José F. Silveira

Copyright © 2016 Furhan T. Mhaisen and Abdul-Razzak L. Al-Rubaie. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided.

1. Introduction

Although fish farming in Iraq started in 1955 with a small pond in Al-Zaafaraniya, south of Baghdad city [1], an advance was achieved in fish farming industry in Iraq during the seventies and early eighties of the last century when many fish farms were established especially in the middle of Iraq [2]. However, such achievement was hindered due to consequences of the war situations during 1980–1988 and 1991 as well as the economic sanction imposed by the UN against Iraq on August 6, 1990. During the last few years, a great advance was achieved in fish farming in general and fish cages in particular due to the increasing demand on fish protein as well as the increasing investment in fish-culture industry in most provinces of Iraq. According to the statistics, a total of 441 working fish farms are scattered in Iraq [3]. Of these farms, a total of 72 working fish farms are situated in Babylon province alone with a water area of 44.5% of the total water area of fish farms in Iraq.

Under extensive fish culture and inadequate administrative and control measures, fish farms are vulnerable to great hazards due to the infection with parasites and other disease agents [2, 4, 5]. Many parasite species can easily spread among fishes suffering from crowd and bad managements, especially those parasites with direct life cycles [6].

In connection with the parasites of cultured fishes of Babylon province, Mhaisen et al. [7] surveyed the literature on the parasitic fauna of fishes of Al-Furat Fish Farm (previously known as Babylon Fish Farm), which is the biggest fish farm in Babylon province, and showed that the parasitic fauna of fishes of that farm included 60 valid parasite species (10 protozoans, three myxozoans, one trematode, 29 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, six crustaceans, and one mollusc larva). In addition, some investigations on other fish farms in Babylon province were done. Such data are scattered in different local journals, unpublished theses, and few other sources. Therefore, the present paper was aimed at gathering data from the literature concerning all fish farms of Babylon province and providing a list of parasite species according to their major groups as well as a host-parasite list for cultured fishes of these farms and some other fish species found in such farms. Such parasite list will help owners of fish farms and fish veterinarians to know what sort of parasites are found in their fish farms, which will help them later in taking appropriate measures for their control.

2. Sources and Methods

A total of 50 references (33 published articles, 12 unpublished theses, two unpublished reports, one book, one conference abstract, and one review article) dealing with the parasites of farm fishes of Babylon province were used to prepare the present paper. Data from such references was gathered to provide host-parasite and parasite-host lists. The systematic account of these parasites is based on some electronic sites [812] as well as some taxonomic references [1316].

The index-catalogue of parasites and disease agents of fishes of Iraq [17] was used to indicate the total number of fish hosts harbouring each parasite species in the whole waters of Iraq.

3. Parasitological Investigations Achieved on Fish Farms of Babylon Province

Few fish farms in Babylon province were surveyed for some parasitic infections. Fishes from Al-Furat Fish Farm received the greatest attention in this respect. So far 25 chronologically arranged references [1842] were concerned with the parasitic fauna of Al-Furat Fish Farm. Only seven references [4349] were concerned with the parasitic fauna of Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm. The literature concerned with fish parasites of other farms in Babylon province included those from Al-Latifiya Fish Farm [6, 5052]; Al-Bajaa Fish Farm [26]; Abdul-Razzak Al-Janabi Fish Farm; Fawzi Al-Janabi Fish Farm and Ali Al-Hayali Fish Farm [53]; three fish farms at Al-Iskandariya district: Abdul-Hadi Al-Matloob Fish Farm, Hussain Al-Gaiem Fish Farm, and Maki Chinak Fish Farm [54]; Technical Institute of Al-Musaib Fish Farm [55]; and Al-Manahil (Al-Bilad) Fish Farm at Al-Iskandariya district [56]. In addition, surveys were done from some unnamed fish ponds such as those at Al-Mahaweel district [57], Al-Musaib district [58], Al-Iskandariya district [59], and Sadat Al-Hindiya district [60] as well as some other unnamed farms in the province [6165].

4. Results and Discussion

Surveying the literature concerning the parasites so far recorded from fish farms of Babylon province showed the presence of 92 parasite species. These parasites included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. The layout and names of the major taxonomic groups (phyla and classes) followed a checklist of an FAO Fisheries Technical Paper [66]. These major groups represent the concerned phyla of the parasites, but due to the great numbers of parasite species of the phylum Platyhelminthes, its three classes (Trematoda, Monogenea, and Cestoda) were applied in addition to their phylum.

5. Major Groups of Parasitic Fauna: Parasite-Host List

The parasite-host list is arranged in the major groups (phyla or classes) of parasitic fauna according to Kirjušina and Vismanis [66]. For each major group, a list of species together with their hosts and concerned references is given. To economize space, names of fish farms are not given here as they can be easily detected from the previous subtitle “Parasitological Investigations Achieved on Fish Farms of Babylon Province.” Also the systematic account of all major groups is given down to the specific name of all parasites. For each parasite species, all records in farm fishes in Babylon province are given together with the first record of each concerned parasite in Iraq as well as the present number of all hosts so far known in Iraq for each concerned species based on the index-catalogue of parasites and disease agents of fishes of Iraq [17].

5.1. Phylum Mastigophora

The phylum Mastigophora is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with only one parasite species of the genus Ichthyobodo. The systematic account of this parasite, followed by parasite-host list, is given here.

Phylum MastigophoraClass KinetoplastideaOrder KinetoplastidaFamily BodonidaeIchthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1884) Pinto, 1928

Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1884) Pinto, 1928, was erroneously reported as Costia necatrix from the skin and gills of C. carpio [27]. The first record of C. necatrix in Iraq was from body surface of H. fossilis from Al-Ashar Canal at Basrah [67]. Seven fish host species are so far known for this parasite (as C. necatrix) in Iraq [17].

5.2. Phylum Apicomplexa

The phylum Apicomplexa, which is known as phylum Myzozoa according to WoRMS [12], is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with three species; two of them belonged to the genus Eimeria and one unspecified species to the genus Haemogregarina.                                           

Phylum Apicomplexa Class SporozoaOrder EucoccidioridaFamily EimeriidaeEimeria dogieli (Dogiel, 1948) Pellerdy, 1963Eimeria mylopharyngodoni Chen, 1956Family HaemogregarinidaeHaemogregarina sp.

Eimeria dogieli (Dogiel, 1948) Pellerdy, 1963, was recorded from the intestine of C. carpio [27]. So far, this is the only record of E. dogieli from fishes of Iraq [17].

Eimeria mylopharyngodoni Chen, 1956, was recorded from C. carpio [49]. The specific name was misspelled as mylopharyngodon and no authority, site of infection, parasite description, and illustration were given for this parasite by Hussain et al. [49]. So this record is considered as questionable especially if we take in consideration that Hussain et al. [49] examined C. carpio externally while E. mylopharyngodoni is known to infect intestine, kidneys, and liver of fishes [68]. This is the only record of E. mylopharyngodoni from fishes of Iraq [17].

Haemogregarina sp. was found on gills of C. carpio [49]. In Iraq, three species of Haemogregarina were so far recorded from blood of three fish species in Basrah province only [17]. So we think that the record of Haemogregarina sp. from gills of C. carpio by Hussain et al. [49] with neither description nor a good illustration is considered as questionable.

5.3. Phylum Ciliophora

The phylum Ciliophora is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with 13 species, three of which belonged to the genera Chilodonella, Ichthyophthirius, and Tripartiella, five to the genus Apiosoma, and four to the genus Trichodina in addition to unspecified species of the genus Trichodina.

Phylum CiliophoraClass KinetophragminophoreaOrder CyrtophoridaFamily ChilodonellidaeChilodonella cyprini (Moroff, 1902) Strand, 1928Class OligohymenophoreaOrder HymenostomatidaFamily IchthyophthiriidaeIchthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876Order PetrichidaFamily EpistylididaeApiosoma amoebae (Grenfell, 1887) Lom, 1966Apiosoma cylindriformis (Chen, 1955)Apiosoma minuta (Chen, 1961) Lom, 1966Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard, 1885Apiosoma poteriformis (Timofeev, 1962) Lom, 1966Order MobilidaFamily TrichodinidaeTrichodina cottidarum Dogiel, 1948Trichodina domerguei (Wallengren, 1897)Trichodina gracilis Polyanskii, 1955Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960Trichodina sp.Tripartiella amurensis (Chan, 1961)

Chilodonella cyprini (Moroff, 1902) Strand, 1928, was recorded from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [27, 29, 43, 51], skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [27, 30, 43, 51, 53], and skin and gills of H. molitrix [27, 43, 51]. The first record of C. cyprini in Iraq was from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of Mystus pelusius from Tigris River at Baghdad [69]. So far 13 fish host species are known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, was recorded from skin and gills of C. idella [27, 29, 43, 51, 56], skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 30, 35, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 5356, 59, 60, 65], and skin and gills of H. molitrix [27, 29, 45, 47, 51]. The first record of I. multifiliis in Iraq was from the skin and gills of Chelon subviridis (reported as Mugil dussumieri) from Tigris River near Baghdad [70]. So far this parasite has 35 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Apiosoma amoebae (Grenfell, 1887) Lom, 1966, was reported from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [20, 24, 27], skin and buccal cavity of C. carpio [27, 55], and gills and buccal cavity of H. molitrix [20, 27]. It is appropriate to mention here that A. amoebae was reported as Glossatella amoebae [27, 55]. The first record of A. amoebae in Iraq was from the skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella from Babylon Fish Farm [20]. So far this parasite has five fish host species in Iraq [17].

Apiosoma cylindriformis (Chen, 1955) was reported from gills of C. idella [20, 24, 27], buccal cavity and gills of C. carpio [27], and gills of H. molitrix [20, 21, 27]. Al-Zubaidy [27] reported A. cylindriformis as Glossatella cylindriformis. The first record of A. cylindriformis in Iraq was from gills of C. idella and H. molitrix from Babylon Fish Farm [20]. So far, A. cylindriformis has seven fish host species in Iraq [17].

Apiosoma minuta (Chen, 1961) Lom, 1966, was recorded from skin of C. carpio [45, 47]. This was its first record in Iraq. So far, A. minuta has two fish host species in Iraq as it was recently recorded from Luciobarbus xanthopterus by Al-Salmany [71].

Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard, 1885, was recorded from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [27, 51], skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [27, 29, 51, 55], and buccal cavity and gills of H. molitrix [20, 21, 27, 29, 51]. It is appropriate to mention here that A. piscicola was reported as Glossatella piscicola [27]. A. piscicola was recorded for the first time in Iraq from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella, C. carpio and H. molitrix from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [51]. So far, this parasite has ten fish host species in Iraq [17].

Apiosoma poteriformis (Timofeev, 1962) Lom, 1966, was recorded from skin and gills of C. idella [20, 24, 27] and buccal cavity and gills of C. carpio [27]. It is appropriate to mention here that A. poteriformis was reported as Glossatella poteriformis by Al-Zubaidy [27]. A. poteriformis was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. idella from Babylon Fish Farm [20]. So far, this parasite has three fish host species in Iraq [17].

Trichodina cottidarum Dogiel, 1948, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [45, 47, 49, 54, 59, 60] and skin and gills of H. molitrix [45, 47]. T. cottidarum was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. carpio from a manmade lake at Baghdad city [72]. So far, this parasite has 13 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Trichodina domerguei (Wallengren, 1897) was recorded from skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [24, 27, 29, 43, 51, 56], skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 30, 35, 43, 51, 53, 55, 56, 59], skin, buccal cavity, and gills of H. molitrix [20, 27, 51], and skin and gills of L. abu [23, 56]. The first record of T. domerguei in Iraq was from skin, fins, and gills of eight freshwater fish species from Tigris River, Al-Tharthar Lake, and fish markets in Baghdad city [73]. So far, T. domerguei has 39 host species in Iraq [17] and, therefore, it is the most prevalent ciliate species among fishes of Iraq.

Trichodina gracilis Polyanskii, 1955, was recorded from skin of C. carpio [45, 47]. This was its first record in Iraq. So far, it has three fish host species in Iraq [17].

Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, was recorded from skin and gills of the three carp species: C. idella [29], C. carpio [27, 29, 35, 49, 55, 59, 60], and H. molitrix [27, 29]. The first record of T. nigra in Iraq was from skin and gills of C. carpio and gills of H. molitrix from Babylon Fish Farm [27]. So far, T. nigra has nine host species in Iraq [17].

Unidentified specimen of Trichodina was recorded from L. abu [50] with no mention to site of infection. In addition to 24 recognized Trichodina species so far recorded from fishes of Iraq, some unidentified species of Trichodina were so far recorded from six fish species [17].

Tripartiella amurensis (Chan, 1961) was recorded from skin of C. carpio [45, 47]. This was its first record in Iraq. No more records are so far known for T. amurensis in Iraq [17].

5.4. Phylum Myxozoa

The phylum Myxozoa is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with five species: one species belonged to the genus Myxobilatus and four species to the genus Myxobolus.

Phylum Myxozoa Class MyxosporeaOrder BivalvulidaFamily SphaerosporidaeMyxobilatus legeri (Cépède, 1905)Family MyxobolidaeMyxobolus dogieli Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya & Bykhovski, 1940Myxobolus muelleri Bütschli, 1882Myxobolus oviformis Thélohan, 1892Myxobolus pfeifferi Thélohan, 1895

Myxobilatus legeri (Cépède, 1905), erroneously reported as Myxobllatus legerl, with no given authority, description, and illustration, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [54]. This was the only record of M. legeri in Iraq [17].

Myxobolus dogieli Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya & Bykhovski, 1940, was recorded from kidneys and gallbladder of L. abu [56]. The first record of M. dogieli in Iraq was mainly from the external surface of heart, liver, and ovaries of L. abu from Tigris River at Baiji town [74]. So far, M. dogieli has nine host species in Iraq [17].

Myxobolus muelleri Bütschli, 1882, was recorded from intestine and liver of C. carpio [27] with the specific name spelled as mülleri. The first record of M. muelleri in Iraq was from gills of Luciobarbus xanthopterus, reported as B. xanthopterus [70]. So far, M. muelleri has eight host species in Iraq [17].

Myxobolus oviformis Thélohan, 1892, was recorded from skin, intestine, and kidneys of C. carpio [27, 54, 59]. The first report of M. oviformis in Iraq was from gill arches and heart of four fish species [70]. So far, M. oviformis has 20 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Myxobolus pfeifferi Thélohan, 1895, was recorded from gills, intestine, liver, kidneys, and gallbladder of C. idella [29], gills, gallbladder, intestine, kidneys, and liver of C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 53, 59], gills, liver, and intestine of H. molitrix [27, 29], and gills, intestinal wall, and gonads of L. abu [23]. The first report of M. pfeifferi in Iraq was from gills of Acanthobrama marmid from Tigris River at Mosul city [75]. So far, M. pfeifferi is the prevalent myxozoan among fishes of Iraq as it has 35 fish host species [17].

5.5. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Class Trematoda

The class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with five species; two species belonged to the genera Apharyngostrigea and Ascocotyle and three species to the genus Diplostomum.

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class TrematodaOrder DiplostomidaFamily StrigeidaeApharyngostrigea cornu (Zeder, 1800)Family DiplostomidaeDiplostomum indistinctum (Guberlet, 1923) Hughes, 1929Diplostomum paraspathaceum Schigin, 1965Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) Olsson, 1876Order PlagiorchiidaFamily HeterophyidaeAscocotyle coleostoma (Looss, 1896) Looss, 1899

Apharyngostrigea cornu (Zeder, 1800) was recorded as metacercaria from mesentery, coelom and liver of C. carpio [52]. This was its first report in Iraq. No more records are so far known on the occurrence of A. cornu from fishes of Iraq [17]. The adult worm of this parasite was detected from the intestine of the purple heron Ardea purpurea in Bahr Al-Najaf Depression [76].

Ascocotyle coleostoma (Looss, 1896) Looss, 1899, was recorded as metacercaria from gills of H. fossilis [56]. This parasite was reported for the first time in Iraq from gills of H. fossilis and L. abu from Diyala River [77]. A. coleostoma has so far 34 fish host species in Iraq [17]. The adult worm of A. coleostoma was detected from the grey heron A. cinerea in Babylon (now Al-Furat) Fish Farm [78].

Diplostomum indistinctum (Guberlet, 1923) Hughes, 1929, was recorded as metacercaria from eyes of H. molitrix [43]. The first occurrence of metacercariae of D. indistinctum was from eyes of Luciobarbus esocinus, reported as B. esocinus from fish market in Mosul city [79]. No more records are so far known on the occurrence of this parasite from fishes of Iraq [17].

Diplostomum paraspathaceum Schigin, 1965, was recorded as metacercaria from eyes of both C. idella [43] and C. carpio [43]. This was its first record in Iraq. No more hosts are so far known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) Olsson, 1876, was recorded as metacercaria from eyes of the three carp species: C. idella [43, 56], C. carpio [29, 43], and H. molitrix [43, 56]. The first occurrence of metacercariae of D. spathaceum was from eyes of C. luteus, reported as B. luteus, Cyprinion macrostomum, and C. carpio from Dokan Lake [80]. Thirty-four hosts are so far known for this parasite in fishes of Iraq [17]. Metacercariae of Diplostomum spp. are responsible for worm cataract which causes fish blindness [81]. Adult worms of this parasite were found in the intestine of some fish-eating birds such as the silver gull Larus argentatus in Bahr Al-Najaf Depression [76].

5.6. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Class Monogenea

The class Monogenea of the phylum Platyhelminthes is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with 45 species: 12 species of the genus Gyrodactylus, 26 species of Dactylogyrus, and one species of each of the genera Pseudacolpenteron, Diplozoon, Eudiplozoon, Paradiplozoon, and Microcotyle in addition to some unidentified species of Dactylogyrus and Diplozoon. It is appropriate to mention here that this group is considered as Monogenea by some electronic sites [912] but as Monogenoidea in some references [14, 66].

Phylum PlatyhelminthesClass MonogeneaOrder GyrodactylideaFamily GyrodactylidaeGyrodactylus baicalensis Bogolepova, 1950Gyrodactylus ctenopharngodontis Ling in Gusev, 1952Gyrodactylus elegans von Nordmann, 1832Gyrodactylus kherulensis Ergens, 1974Gyrodactylus macracanthus Hukuda, 1940Gyrodactylus malmbergi Ergens, 1961Gyrodactylus markevitschi Kulakovskaya, 1952Gyrodactylus medius Kathariner, 1895Gyrodactylus menschikowi Gvosdev, 1950Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957Gyrodactylus sprostonae Ling, 1962Gyrodactylus vicinus Bychowsky, 1957Order DactylogyrideaFamily DactylogyridaeDactylogyrus achmerowi Gusev, 1955Dactylogyrus amurensis Akhmerov, 1952Dactylogyrus anchoratus (Dujardin, 1845) Wagener, 1857Dactylogyrus arcuatus Yamaguti, 1942Dactylogyrus barbioides Gusev, Ali, Abdul-Ameer, Amin & Molnár, 1993Dactylogyrus cornu Linstow, 1878Dactylogyrus crassus Kulwiec, 1927Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonis Achmerow, 1952Dactylogyrus dogieli Gusev, 1953Dactylogyrus ergensi Molnár, 1964Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller & Van Cleave, 1932Dactylogyrus gobii Gvosdev, 1950Dactylogyrus hypophthalmichthys Akhmerov, 1952Dactylogyrus inexpectatus Izjumova, in Gusev, 1955Dactylogyrus jamansajensis Osmanov, 1958Dactylogyrus lamellatus Akhmerov, 1952Dactylogyrus latituba Gusev, 1955Dactylogyrus lopuchinae Jukhimenko, 1981Dactylogyrus minutus Kulwiec, 1927Dactylogyrus navicularis A. Gusev, 1955Dactylogyrus phoxini Malevitskaia, 1949Dactylogyrus propinquus Bychowsky, 1931Dactylogyrus sahuensis Ling in Chen et al., 1973Dactylogyrus simplex Bychowsky, 1936Dactylogyrus skrjabini Akhmerov, 1954Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924Dactylogyrus spp.Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii Bychowsky & Gussev, 1955Order MazocraeideaFamily DiplozoidaeDiplozoon paradoxum Nordmann, 1832Diplozoon sp.Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Goto, 1891)Paradiplozoon barbi (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1951)Family MicrocotylidaeMicrocotyle donavini van Beneden & Hesse, 1863

Gyrodactylus baicalensis Bogolepova, 1950, was recorded from skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 52]. The first report of G. baicalensis in Iraq was from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. So far, G. baicalensis has eight fish host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus ctenopharngodontis Ling in Gusev, 1952, was recorded from skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [24, 27]. The first report of G. ctenopharngodontis in Iraq was from gills of C. idella from Babylon Fish Farm [24]. No more hosts are so far recorded for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus elegans von Nordmann, 1832, was recorded from skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of both C. idella [27, 29, 52] and C. carpio [2527, 29, 30, 32, 33, 43, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 60] as well as from gills of H. molitrix [29] and from L. abu [50] with no mention to site of infection. The first report of G. elegans in Iraq was from C. carpio from Al-Zaafaraniya Fish Farm and L. abu from Al-Latifiya Fish Farm [50]. So far, G. elegans has 23 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus kherulensis Ergens, 1974, was recorded from skin and gills of C. idella [27] and skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [18, 27]. The first report of G. kherulensis in Iraq was from gills of C. carpio from Babylon Fish Farm [18]. So far, G. kherulensis has four fish host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus macracanthus Hukuda, 1940 (reported as G. paralatus Gusev, 1955), was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [27] and skin, fins, and buccal cavity of H. molitrix [27]. This was its first report in Iraq. Later on, it was reported from both hosts [82] as G. paralatus also. According to Gussev [83] and Pugachev et al. [14], G. paralatus is a synonym of G. macracanthus. No more hosts are so far known for G. macracanthus or its synonym G. paralatus from fishes of Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus malmbergi Ergens, 1961, was recorded from skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [27] and from skin and gills of H. molitrix [27]. This was its first report in Iraq and no more hosts are so far known for G. malmbergi from fishes of Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus markevitschi Kulakovskaya, 1952, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [27, 45, 47, 60]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from gills of Capoeta trutta (reported as Varicorhinus trutta) from Tigris River at Baiji town [74]. So far, G. markevitschi has six host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus medius Kathariner, 1895, was recorded from skin and fins of C. carpio [27]. This was its first record in Iraq. The year of authority of this parasite was erroneously given as 1893 instead of 1895 by Al-Zubaidy [27] as well as by three other references according to Mhaisen and Abdul-Ameer [15]. Also the authorship of this parasite was given as Katheriner instead of Kathariner according to MonoDB [10]. Now, this parasite has three host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus menschikowi Gvosdev, 1950, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [60]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from gills and skin of C. carpio and skin, fins, and gills of L. abu both from Hilla River [84]. So far, no more hosts for this parasite are known in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [27, 29]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from gills and skin of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. The year of authority of this parasite was reported as 1956 instead of 1957 by Al-Zubaidy [27] and Al-Jadoaa [29]. No more hosts for this parasite are so far known in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus sprostonae Ling, 1962, was recorded fromskin and fins of C. carpio [27]. This was its first report in Iraq. Now, this parasite has seven host species in Iraq [17].

Gyrodactylus vicinus Bychowsky, 1957, was recorded from skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [27, 35]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. Now, it has three host species in Iraq [17].

Finally, the unidentified Gyrodactylus species reported from C. carpio [34, 38] were the same 11 species which had been recorded in Al-Zubaidy [27]. In Iraq, so far 15 fish host species were reported for some unspecified Gyrodactylus species [17].

Dactylogyrus achmerowi Gusev, 1955, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [19, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 54, 55, 60]. The first report of D. achmerowi in Iraq was from gills of C. carpio from Al-Wahda Fish Hatchery at Al-Suwaira and Babylon Fish Farm [19]. Now, it has 11 host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus amurensis Akhmerov, 1952, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [55]. This was its first report in Iraq. However, neither description and measurements nor illustration was given. So far, this parasite has two host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus anchoratus (Dujardin, 1845) Wagener, 1857, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [45, 47]. The first report and description of D. anchoratus in Iraq were from gills of C. carpio from Tigris River at Al-Zaafaraniya [85, 86]. Now, it has seven fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus arcuatus Yamaguti, 1942, was recorded from gills of C. idella [29] and skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 35, 36, 49, 52, 55, 59, 60]. The first report of D. arcuatus in Iraq was from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. Now, it has seven fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus barbioides Gusev, Ali, Abdul-Ameer, Amin & Molnár, 1993, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [60]. D. barbioides was described as a new species from gills of Barbus grypus from Tigris River near Baiji town [87]. Now, it has three fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus cornu Linstow, 1878, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [27, 59]. D. cornu was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of five fish species from Diyala River [88]. So far, it has 13 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus crassus Kulwiec, 1927, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [45, 47, 55, 60]. D. crassus was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. carpio from Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm [45]. It is appropriate to mention here that the specific name crassus was misspelled as carassus by Al-Rubaie et al. [55]. No more hosts are so far known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonis Achmerow, 1952, was recorded from gills of C. idella from Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm [43]. This is the only report on the occurrence of D. ctenopharyngodonis in fishes of Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus dogieli Gusev, 1953, was recorded from gills of C. carpio in fish cages and an earthen pond in Sadat Al-Hindiya [60]. The first report of D. dogieli was from five fish species from Euphrates River at Al-Musaib city [89] and its full description and illustration were published later by Al-Sa’adi et al. [90]. Six host species are so far known for D. dogieli in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus ergensi Molnár, 1964, was recorded from gills of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. This was its first report in Iraq. No more hosts were reported for D. ergensi in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller & Van Cleave, 1932, was recorded from gills of C. idella [29], buccal cavity and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 43, 45, 47, 52, 54, 55, 59, 60], and gills of H. molitrix [29, 45, 47]. The first report of D. extensus in Iraq was from the buccal cavity and gills of C. carpio from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. D. solidus which was also recorded from the same host by Salih et al. [52] as well as by Mhaisen & Abul-Eis [25] and Al-Rubaie et al. [55] is considered as a synonym of D. extensus according to Gibson et al. [13]. D. extensus and its synonym D. solidus have so far 17 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus gobii Gvosdev, 1950, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [45, 47, 60]. D. gobii was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. carpio from Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm [45]. Now, it has three host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus hypophthalmichthys Akhmerov, 1952, was recorded from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of H. molitrix [21, 27, 43, 45, 47, 52, 56]. It is reliable to state here that D. hypophthalmichthys was reported as Neodactylogyrus hypophthalmichthys by Asmar et al. [56]. The first report of D. hypophthalmichthys in Iraq was from the buccal cavity and gills of H. molitrix from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. H. molitrix is the only host so far known for D. hypophthalmichthys in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus inexpectatus Izjumova, in Gusev, 1955, was recorded from skin and gills of C. idella [27, 29, 52], gills of C. carpio [27, 29], and gills of H. molitrix [29]. The first report of D. inexpectatus in Iraq was from skin and gills of C. idella from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. Now, it has five host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus jamansajensis Osmanov, 1958, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [45, 47]. The first report of D. jamansajensis in Iraq was from gills of C. luteus from manmade lakes, north of Baghdad [91]. Now, it has five host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus lamellatus Akhmerov, 1952, was recorded from skin, fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella [24, 27, 43, 52, 56] and gills of C. carpio [27]. The first report of D. lamellatus in Iraq was from the skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. idella from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. Now, it has three host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus latituba Gusev, 1955, was recorded from gills of both C. idella [27] and C. carpio [25, 27] as well as from the buccal cavity and gills of H. molitrix [27]. The first report of D. latituba in Iraq was from gills of C. luteus from manmade lakes, north of Baghdad [91]. Now, it has four host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus lopuchinae Jukhimenko, 1981, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [45, 47, 54]. D. lopuchinae was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. carpio from Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm [45]. No more hosts are so far known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus minutus Kulwiec, 1927, was recorded from skin, fins, and gills of C. carpio [27, 30, 32, 33, 45, 47, 55, 56, 59, 60]. The first report on this parasite in Iraq was from gills of C. carpio from Tigris River at Al-Zaafaraniya, south of Baghdad, and Al-Qadisia Dam Lake [85], while its description and illustration were given later by Mhaisen et al. [86]. So far, D. minutus has 12 fish species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus navicularis A. Gusev, 1955, was recorded from fins, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [27, 35, 60]. The first report of D. navicularis in Iraq was from the buccal cavity, fins, and gills of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. C. carpio is the only host so far known for D. navicularis in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus phoxini Malevitskaia, 1949, was recorded from skin and gills of C. carpio [45, 47, 60]. The first record of D. phoxini in Iraq was in June 1995 from gills of C. carpio from Tigris River at Al-Zaafaraniya but the report was published later by Balasem et al. [92]. This parasite has so far only two host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus propinquus Bychowsky, 1931, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [27, 35, 49]. The first report of D. propinquus in Iraq was from gills of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. C. carpio is the only host so far known for D. propinquus in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus sahuensis Ling in Chen et al., 1973, was recorded from fins and gills of C. carpio [27]. The first report of D. sahuensis in Iraq was from fins and gills of C. carpio from Al-Furat Fish Farm [27]. C. carpio is the only host so far known for D. sahuensis in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus simplex Bychowsky, 1936, was recorded from C. carpio [49] with no mention to site of infection. The first report of D. simplex in Iraq was from gills of C. carpio from the new fish farm of the Fish Research Center at Al-Zaafaraniya [93]. D. simplex has so far three host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus skrjabini Akhmerov, 1954, was recorded from buccal cavity and gills of C. carpio [27, 45, 47] and buccal cavity and gills of H. molitrix [21, 27, 52]. The first report of D. skrjabini in Iraq was from buccal cavity and gills of H. molitrix from Al-Suwaira and Al-Latifiya Fish Farms [52]. Now, D. skrjabini has six host species in Iraq [17].

Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924, was recorded from gills of C. idella [27] and skin and gills of C. carpio [26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 43, 49, 52, 53, 56, 59, 60, 64]. The first report of D. vastator from Iraq was from skin and gills of C. macrostomum from Tigris River at Baghdad [94]. So far, D. vastator was reported from 33 fish host species from north, middle, and south of Iraq [17].

Unidentified Dactylogyrus species were recorded from skin and gills of C. idella [56] and from skin, buccal cavity, and gills of C. carpio [34, 38, 56]. Some of these specimens were larval stages [56], while the unidentified Dactylogyrus species of Al-Zubaidy et al. [34, 38] were the same 15 species which were recorded in Al-Zubaidy [27]. In Iraq, so far nine fish host species were reported for some unspecified Dactylogyrus species [17].

Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii Bychowsky & Gussev, 1955, was recorded from fins and gills of C. carpio [25, 27, 45, 47] and gills of H. molitrix [27]. The first report of P. pavlovskii from Iraq was from skin and gills of C. carpio from Babylon Fish Farm [25]. This species has so far only two host species in Iraq [17].

Diplozoon paradoxum Nordmann, 1832, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [60]. This parasite was reported for the first time in Iraq from gills of Carasobarbus luteus, reported as Barbus luteus, from Al-Husainia creek, Karbala province [95]. Now, it has five fish hosts in Iraq [17].

Unidentified Diplozoon species were recorded from gills of C. carpio [43]. Some other unidentified Diplozoon species occurred as larvae in 12 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Goto, 1891) was recorded from gills of C. carpio [60]. This parasite was recorded for the first time in Iraq from gills of C. carpio from a manmade lake in Baghdad [96] as Diplozoon nipponicum but then it was reported by its valid name E. nipponicum by all subsequent researchers. So far, three host species are known for E. nipponicum in Iraq [17].

Paradiplozoon barbi (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1951) was recorded from gills of C. carpio [27] as Diplozoon barbi. This parasite was reported for the first time in Iraq from gills of Chondrostoma nasus, C. regium, and C. carpio from Tigris River at Baghdad  [97] as Diplozoon barbi. Also, all the subsequent records in the Iraqi literature, except the checklists of Mhaisen and Abdul-Ameer [16], referred to this parasite as D. barbi. According to Khotenovsky [98], D. barbi is a synonym of P. barbi. Eight host species are so far known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

Microcotyle donavini van Beneden & Hesse, 1863, was recorded from gills of L. abu from Babylon Fish Farm [22]. This was its first report in Iraq. Ten host species are so far known for M. donavini in Iraq [17].

5.7. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Class Cestoda

The class Cestoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with five species: one species of each of the genera Bothriocephalus, Ligula, and Neogryporhynchus as well as two species of Proteocephalus.

Phylum PlatyhelminthesClass CestodaOrder BothriocephalideaFamily BothriocephalidaeBothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934Order DiphyllobothriideaFamily DiphyllobothriidaeLigula intestinalis (L., 1758) Bloch, 1782Order ProteocephalideaFamily ProteocephalidaeProteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) Nybelin, 1942Proteocephalus torulosus (Batsch, 1786) Nufer, 1905Order CyclophyllideaFamily DilepididaeNeogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) Baer & Bona, 1960

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, was recorded from the intestine of both C. idella [24, 56] and C. carpio [2527, 52, 53, 62]. It is appropriate to mention here that this worm was reported by its synonym B. opsariichthydis by Salih et al. [52] and Al-Zubaidy [27]. The first report of B. acheilognathi in Iraq was from the intestine of C. carpio from different fish farms near Baghdad [99]. Two other species of Bothriocephalus, B. gowkongensis Yeh, 1955, and B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934, were also reported from Iraq [17]. According to Molnár [100], both these two species are considered as synonyms of B. acheilognathi. At the present time, B. acheilognathi and both of its above-named synonyms has so far a total of 21 host species in Iraq [17].

Ligula intestinalis (L., 1758) Bloch, 1782, was recorded from the body cavity of both C. idella [24, 27, 29] and C. carpio [27]. L. intestinalis was reported for the first time in Iraq as a plerocercoid from the body cavity of Leuciscus vorax (reported as A. vorax) from Shatt Al-Arab River [101]. So far, this species has 13 fish host species in Iraq [17]. In Iraq, the adult stage of L. intestinalis was reported from the intestine of the moorhen Gallinula chloropus chloropus from around Baghdad [102].

Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) Nybelin, 1942, was recorded from the intestine of C. carpio [27]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from the intestine of L. vorax (reported as A. vorax) from Al-Tharthar Lake [103]. So far, this species has eight fish host species in Iraq [17].

Proteocephalus torulosus (Batsch, 1786) Nufer, 1905, was recorded from intestine of C. carpio [27]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from the intestine of C. carpio from a fish farm near Baghdad city [99]. So far, this species has two fish host species in Iraq [17].

Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) Baer & Bona, 1960, was recorded from the intestine of C. carpio by Al-Zubaidy [27] as Gryporhynchus cheilancristrotus. The first report of N. cheilancristrotus in Iraq was from the intestine of L. abu from Diyala River [104]. So far, this species has four fish host species in Iraq [17].

5.8. Phylum Nematoda

The phylum Nematoda is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with three species: unidentified larval species of the genus Contracaecum as well as one species of each of the genera Cucullanus and Rhabdochona.

Phylum NematodaClass SecernenteaOrder AscarididaFamily AnisakidaeContracaecum spp.Family CucullanidaeCucullanus cyprini Yamaguti, 1941Order SpiruridaFamily RhabdochonidaeRhabdochona hellichi (Srámek, 1901)

Unidentified larval species of Contracaecum was recorded from the intestinal wall, body cavity, liver, spleen, heart, and gonads of C. carpio [27, 29] and intestinal wall of L. abu [22, 37, 42]. The first report of Contracaecum spp. larvae in Iraq was from the body cavity and different viscera of 10 fish species from different inland waters of Iraq [70]. Contracaecum spp. larvae have so far 40 fish host species in Iraq [17]. Adult worms of Contracaecum spp. were detected from six species of aquatic birds in Iraq, Egretta alba, E. garzetta, Ardeola ralloides, Botaurus stellaris, Ardea purpurea, and Ceryle rudis, from Bahr Al-Najaf Depression [76].

Cucullanus cyprini Yamaguti, 1941, was recorded from the intestine of C. carpio [27]. The first report of this parasite in Iraq was from the intestine of Alburnus caeruleus and Luciobarbus xanthopterus (reported as B. xanthopterus) from Al-Tharthar Lake [103]. So far, this species has 15 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Rhabdochona hellichi (Srámek, 1901), erroneously reported as R. bellichi, was recorded from intestine of the three carp species: C. idella [29], C. carpio [29], and H. molitrix [29]. Ali et al. [105] reported this parasite (also erroneously as R. bellichi) from the intestine and coelom of L. xanthopterus (reported as B. xanthopterus), H. fossilis, and Mystus pelusius (reported as M. halepensis). Eight fish species are so far known for this parasite in Iraq [17].

5.9. Phylum Acanthocephala

The phylum Acanthocephala is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with two valid species of the genus Neoechinorhynchus.

Phylum AcanthocephalaClass EoacanthocephalaOrder NeoechinorhynchidaFamily NeoechinorhynchidaeNeoechinorhynchus iraqensis Amin, Al-Sady, Mhaisen & Bassat, 2001Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Hamann, 1892

Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis Amin, Al-Sady, Mhaisen & Bassat, 2001, was recorded from intestine of both C. carpio [27] and L. abu [22, 50]. It is appropriate to mention here that this species was reported as N. agilis from C. carpio and L. abu by Al-Zubaidy [27] and Ali et al. [22], respectively. N. agilis is a misidentification of N. iraqensis [106]. The first report of N. iraqensis was as species de novo from the intestine of L. abu from the Euphrates River at Al-Fallujah region [107], while its description was given later by Amin et al. [108]. N. iraqensis and the misidentified N. agilis have so far 24 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Hamann, 1892, was recorded from the intestine of the three carp species: C. idella [29], C. carpio [27, 29], and H. molitrix [29]. N. rutili was firstly recorded by Herzog [70] from L. xanthopterus (reported as B. xanthopterus) from Tigris and Diyala rivers near Baghdad and from L. abu (reported as Mugil abu) from Citscher Oasis near Al-Fallujah. N. rutili has so far 16 fish host species in Iraq [17].

5.10. Phylum Arthropoda: Subphylum Crustacea

The subphylum Crustacea of the phylum Arthropoda is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with nine species: one species of each of the genera Argulus, Dermoergasilus, Paraergasilus, Lamproglena, and Lernaea and three species of Ergasilus in addition to unidentified species of Ergasilus.  

Phylum ArthropodaSubphylum CrustaceaClass MaxillopodaOrder ArguloidaFamily Argulidae Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758)Order CyclopoidaFamily Ergasilidae Dermoergasilus varicoleus Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992 Ergasilus barbi Rahemo, 1982 Ergasilus mosulensis Rahemo, 1982 Ergasilus sieboldi von Nordmann, 1832 Ergasilus sp. Paraergasilus inflatus Ho, Khamees & Mhaisen, 1996Family LernaeidaeLamproglena pulchella von Nordmann, 1832 Lernaea cyprinacea L., 1758

Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) was recorded from gills of the three carp species: C. idella [27], C. carpio [25, 27], and H. molitrix [27] as well as from fins of C. auratus [58]. A. foliaceus was reported for the first time in Iraq [70] from skin of C. carpio from Al-Zaafaraniya Fish-Culture Station and C. luteus (reported as B. luteus) from Al-Habbaniyah Lake [70]. A. foliaceus has so far 16 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Dermoergasilus varicoleus Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992, was recorded from gills of L. abu [31, 40]. This crustacean was reported for the first time in Iraq from gills of L. abu from Shatt Al-Arab River [109]. D. varicoleus has so far nine fish host species in Iraq [17].

Ergasilus barbi Rahemo, 1982, was recorded from gills of L. abu [46]. This crustacean was firstly detected from gills of B. grypus from Tigris River at Mosul city by Fattohy [75] and its full description as a new species was achieved by Rahemo [110]. E. barbi has so far 13 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Ergasilus mosulensis Rahemo, 1982, was recorded from gills of the three carp species, C. idella [27], C. carpio [27], and H. molitrix [27] as well as gills of L. abu [46]. This crustacean was firstly detected from gills of L. abu from Tigris River at Mosul city by Fattohy [75] and its full description as a new species was achieved by Rahemo [110]. E. mosulensis has so far 23 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Ergasilus sieboldi von Nordmann, 1832, was recorded from gills, buccal cavity, and skin of the three carp species: C. idella [27, 29], C. carpio [25, 27, 29, 51, 55], and H. molitrix [27, 29, 56]. The first report of E. sieboldi in Iraq was from gills of L. vorax (reported as A. vorax) from Al-Habbaniyah Lake [70]. E. sieboldi has so far 26 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Ergasilus sp. was recorded from L. abu [50] with no mention to site of infection. In addition to 11 species of Ergasilus so far recorded from fishes of Iraq, some specimens of unidentified Ergasilus species were also reported from 12 fish species in Iraq [17].

Paraergasilus inflatus Ho, Khamees & Mhaisen, 1996, was recorded from gills of H. molitrix [27]. This crustacean was reported as a new species from gill rakers of L. abu from Shatt Al-Arab River [111]. D. varicoleus has so far seven fish host species in Iraq [17].

Lamproglena pulchella von Nordmann, 1832, was recorded from gills of C. carpio [27]. The first report of L. pulchella in Iraq was from gills of Chondrostoma regium and Capoeta trutta (reported as Varicorhinus trutta) from Tigris River at Mosul city [112]. L. pulchella has so far 19 fish host species in Iraq [17].

Lernaea cyprinacea L., 1758, was recorded from skin, fins, and gills of the three carp species, C. idella [24, 2729, 43, 51], C. carpio [6, 2531, 39, 41, 43, 44, 48, 51, 5355, 57, 61, 63], and H. molitrix [21, 2729, 43], as well as from gills of L. abu [23]. The first report of the anchor worm L. cyprinacea in Iraq was from skin, fins, buccal cavity, pharyngeal cavity, gills, and anus of seven freshwater fish species from Al-Zaafaraniya Fish-Culture Station [113]. L. cyprinacea is the commonest crustacean among fishes of Iraq as it has so far 30 fish host species in Iraq [17].

5.11. Phylum Mollusca

The phylum Mollusca is represented in farm fishes of Babylon province with only one parasite species of the genus Unio. The systematic account of this parasite, followed by parasite-host list, is given here.

Phylum MolluscaClass BivalviaOrder UnionoidaFamily UnionidaeUnio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758) was recorded from gills of both C. carpio [27, 29] and H. molitrix [27]. The first report of the glochidial larvae of U. pictorum in Iraq was from gills of eight freshwater fish species from Diyala River [104]. It is appropriate to mention here that the authority of U. pictorum was erroneously stated as Zhadin, 1938, in all the Iraqi literature except Al-Salmany [71]. U. pictorum has so far 24 fish host species in Iraq [17].

6. Host-Parasite List

The following host-parasite list for fish parasites in fish farms of Babylon province is compiled. For each host, the scientific names of all recorded parasites are alphabetically enlisted under their major parasitic groups. To economize space, references of previous records for each parasite species are not given here. These can be obtained from the account of each concerned parasite species in the part of major groups of parasitic fauna within the results and discussion part.

6.1. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

Mastigophora: Ichthyobodo necator.Apicomplexa: Eimeria dogieli, E. mylopharyngodoni, and Haemogregarina sp.Ciliophora: Apiosoma amoebae, A. cylindriformis, A. minuta, A. piscicola, A. poteriformis, Chilodonella cyprini, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina cottidarum, T. domerguei, T. gracilis, T. nigra, and Tripartiella amurensis.Myxozoa: Myxobilatus legeri, Myxobolus muelleri, M. oviformis, and M. pfeifferi.Trematoda: Apharyngostrigea cornu, Diplostomum paraspathaceum, and D. spathaceum.Monogenea: Dactylogyrus achmerowi, D. amurensis, D. anchoratus, D. arcuatus, D. barbioides, D. cornu, D. crassus, D. dogieli, D. ergensi, D. extensus, D. gobii, D. inexpectatus, D. jamansajensis, D. lamellatus, D. latituba, D. lopuchinae, D. minutus, D. navicularis, D. phoxini, D. propinquus, D. sahuensis, D. simplex, D. skrjabini, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus spp., Diplozoon paradoxum, Diplozoon sp., Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Gyrodactylus baicalensis, G. elegans, G. kherulensis, G. macracanthus, G. malmbergi, G. markewitschi, G. medius, G. menschikowi, G. salaris, G. sprostonae, G. vicinus, Paradiplozoon barbi, and Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii.Cestoda: Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Ligula intestinalis, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus, Proteocephalus osculatus, and P. torulosus.Nematoda: Contracaecum sp., Cucullanus cyprini, and Rhabdochona hellichi.Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis and N. rutili.Crustacea: Argulus foliaceus, Ergasilus mosulensis, E. sieboldi, Lamproglena pulchella, and Lernaea cyprinacea.Mollusca: Unio pictorum.

6.2. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Ciliophora: Apiosoma amoebae, A. cylindriformis, A. piscicola, A. poteriformis, Chilodonella cyprini, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina domerguei, and T. nigra.Myxozoa: Myxobolus pfeifferi.Trematoda: Diplostomum paraspathaceum and D. spathaceum.Monogenea: Dactylogyrus arcuatus, D. ctenopharyngodonis, D. extensus, D. inexpectatus, D. lamellatus, D. latituba, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus ctenopharyngodontis, G. elegans, and G. kherulensis.Cestoda: Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ligula intestinalis.Nematoda: Rhabdochona hellichi.Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchus rutili.Crustacea: Argulus foliaceus, Ergasilus mosulensis, E. sieboldi, and Lernaea cyprinacea.

6.3. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Ciliophora: Apiosoma amoebae, A. cylindriformis, A. piscicola, Chilodonella cyprini, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina cottidarum, T. domerguei, and T. nigra.Myxozoa: Myxobolus pfeifferi.Trematoda: Diplostomum indistinctum and D. spathaceum.Monogenea: Dactylogyrus extensus, D. hypophthalmichthys, D. inexpectatus, D. latituba, D. skrjabini, Gyrodactylus elegans, G. macracanthus, G. malmbergi, and Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii.Nematoda: Rhabdochona hellichi.Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchus rutili.Crustacea: Argulus foliaceus, Ergasilus mosulensis, E. sieboldi, Lernaea cyprinacea, and Paraergasilus inflatus.Mollusca: Unio pictorum.

6.4. Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Crustacea: Argulus foliaceus.

6.5. Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794)

Trematoda: Ascocotyle coleostoma.

6.6. Liza abu (Heckel, 1843)

Ciliophora: Trichodina domerguei and Trichodina sp.Myxozoa: Myxobolus dogieli and M. pfeifferi.Monogenea: Gyrodactylus elegans and Microcotyle donavini.Nematoda: Contracaecum sp.Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis.Crustacea: Dermoergasilus varicoleus, Ergasilus barbi, E. mosulensis, Ergasilus sp., and Lernaea cyprinacea.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there are not any competing interests related to the publication of this paper.

References

  1. M. I. Al-Hamed, “Carp culture in Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Agriculture Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 14–23, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  2. F. T. Mhaisen, “A review on the parasites and diseases in fishes of ponds and farms of Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 20–28, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  3. Ministry of Agriculture, Statistical Data on Fish Farms in Different Provinces of Iraq up to 31 December 2014, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq, 2014.
  4. F. T. Mhaisen, “The role of wild fishes in fish farms of Iraq from parasitological and pathological points of view,” Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 17, pp. 126–136, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. T. Mhaisen, “Natural enemies of farm fishes with special emphasis on fish farms of Iraq,” Al-Tharwa Al-Samakia (Fisheries), vol. 14, pp. 92–98, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  6. F. T. Mhaisen, Diseases and Parasites of Fishes, Basrah University Press, 1983.
  7. F. T. Mhaisen, K. S. Al-Niaeem, and A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “Literature review on fish parasites of Al-Furat Fish Farm, Babylon province, Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 95–122, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. EOL Encyclopedia of Life On-Line Database, 2015, http://www.eol.org.
  9. ITIS Integrated Taxonomic Information System On-Line Database, 2015, http://www.itis.gov.
  10. MonoDB Web-Host for the Monogenea, 2015, http://www.monodb.org/.
  11. PESI Pan-European Species Dictionaries Infrastructure, 2015, http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/webservices.php.
  12. WoRMS World Register of Marine Species, 2015, http://www.marinespecies.org.
  13. D. I. Gibson, T. A. Timofeeva, and P. I. Gerasev, “A catalogue of the nominal species of the monogenean genus Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 and their host genera,” Systematic Parasitology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 3–48, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. O. N. Pugachev, P. I. Gerasev, A. V. Gussev, R. Ergens, and I. Khotenowsky, Eds., Guide to Monogenoidea of Freshwater Fish of Palaearctic and Amur Regions, Edizioni Ledizioni Ledi, Milano, Italy, 2009.
  15. F. T. Mhaisen and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Checklists of Gyrodactylus species (Monogenea) from fishes of Iraq,” Basrah Journal of Agriculture Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 8–25, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. T. Mhaisen and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Checklists of diplozoid species (Monogenea) from fishes of Iraq,” Bulletin of Iraq Natural History Museum, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 95–111, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  17. F. T. Mhaisen, “Index-catalogue of parasites and disease agents of fishes of Iraq,” 2015.
  18. N. M. Ali, F. T. Mhaisen, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “First occurrence of the monogenetic trematode Gyrodactylus kherulensis Ergens, 1974 in Iraq on the gills of the common carp Cyprinus carpio,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 659–664, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  19. F. T. Mhaisen, N. M. Ali, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “First record of Dactylogyrus achmerowi Gussev, 1955 with an identification key for the dactylogyrids of fishes of Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 19, pp. 887–900, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  20. N. M. Ali, F. T. Mhaisen, and E. S. Abul-Eis, “Three stalked ciliates (Scyphidia: Peritrichia) new to the parasitic fauna of the fishes of Iraq,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Scientific Research Council, vol. 5, pp. 218–224, 1989.
  21. N. M. Ali, F. T. Mhaisen, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “Parasites of the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix from Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq,” Rivista di Idrobiologia, vol. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 151–154, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  22. N. M. Ali, F. T. Mhaisen, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “Helminth parasites of the mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel) inhabiting Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Scientific Research Council, vol. 5, pp. 225–233, 1989.
  23. F. T. Mhaisen, N. M. Ali, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “Protozoan and crustacean parasites of the mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel) inhabiting Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 517–525, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  24. F. T. Mhaisen, N. M. Ali, E. S. Abul-Eis, and L. S. Kadim, “Parasitological investigation on the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) of Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  25. F. T. Mhaisen and E. S. Abul-Eis, “Parasites of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq, cited in F. T. Mhaisen, N. R. Khamees and S. A. M. Al-Daraji, Parasites and disease agents of carps in Iraq: a check-list,” Basrah Journal of Agriculture Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 133–139, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  26. F. T. Mhaisen, A. N. Balasem, G. H. Al-Khateeb, S. M. J. Al-Shaikh, and J. M. Al-Jawda, “Survey of parasites of farm fishes in three provinces in mid Iraq,” Al-Tharwa Al-Samakia, vol. 13, pp. 84–87, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, Studies on the parasitic fauna of carps in Al-Furat Fish Farm, Babylon province, Iraq [Ph.D. thesis], University of Babylon, 1998.
  28. F. H. A. Al-Dulaimi, Distribution of infection with Lernaea cyprinacea L. in carps and its control by using some plant extracts [M.S. thesis], University of Babylon, 2002.
  29. N. A. A. Al-Jadoaa, The parasitic infections and pathological changes of some local and cultured fishes from Al-Qadisiya and Babylon provinces [Ph.D. thesis], Al-Qadisiya University, 2002.
  30. N. A. Al-Zamily, Efficiency of some plant extracts in eradication of monogenetic trematodes parasitizing skin and gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 2002.
  31. R. A. Kadim, Investigation of crustacean parasites on some species of fishes in Al-Furat Fish Farm and Al-Mahaweel Drainage Collector in Babylon province [M.S. thesis], University of Babylon, 2003.
  32. F. T. Mhaisen, M. T. Al-Kaisey, and N. A. Al-Zamily, “Effect of the water extracts of red pepper and colocynth in treating the common carp infected with skin and gill trematodes,” Iraqi Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 5–14, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  33. N. A. Al-Zamily, F. F. Mhaisen, and M. T. Al-Kaisey, “Efficiency of the water extract of pomegranate fruit shells in treating the common carp infected with skin and gill trematodes,” Ibn Al-Haitham Journal for Pure and Applied Science, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1–12, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, F. S. Al-Zubadi, and F. T. Mhaisen, “Treatment of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with monogenetic trematodes by using some plant extracts,” Journal of Um Salama for Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  35. S. M. A. Al-Haider, Studying the biotic and abiotic factors affecting in survival rate of larvae and fingerling rearing ponds at Al-Furat Company-Babilon [M.S. thesis], Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq, 2008.
  36. G. B. Al-Oumashi, “A study on carp infection dynamics by worm (Dactylogyrus) in Al-Forat Fish Farm,” Al-Qadisiya Journal of Pure Science, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 8–13, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “Prevalence and densities of Contracaecum sp. larvae in Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) from different Iraqi water bodies,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University, Marine Science, vol. 20, pp. 3–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, F. T. Mhaisen, and F. S. Al-Zubaidi, “Study on the parasitic fauna of carps in Al-Furat Fish Farm, Iraq. 1: treatment of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with monogenetic trematodes by using some plant extracts,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University, Marine Science, vol. 20, pp. 155–170, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. R. A. Kadhim, “Resistance of common carp fishes Cyprinus carpio (L.) to reinfection by anchor worm Lernaea cyprinacea (L.),” Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 49–58, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  40. R. A. Kadim and A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “Treatment of Liza abu infected with the parasitic crustacean Dermoergasilus varicoleus by using boiling water extracts of Artemisia herba-alba (L.) and Petroselinum crispum (Mill.),” Journal of Babylon University, Pure Science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 518–528, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  41. R. A. Kadim and A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “The pathological effects of the anchor worm Lernaea cyprinacea L. on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.,” Journal of Babylon University, Pure Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 929–935, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  42. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “Studies on the food, size and endoparasites of Liza abu from river and farm in Babylon, middle of Iraq,” In press.
  43. S. K. Muhammed, An external and eye parasite survey for carp fishes in Al-Eskandaryia region (Babylon) [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 2000.
  44. A. N. Yaseen, Using of some crude plant extracts in treating the common carp, Cyprinus carpio infected with the anchor worm Lernaea cyprinacea [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 2000.
  45. H. T. Hussain, Ectoparasitic infection of the common carp and silver carp fingerlings stocked under winter in Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm, Babylon province [M.S. thesis], Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq, 2005.
  46. F. H. A. Al-Dulaimi, A. K. A. Al-Hamiary, and A. H. A. Al-Khafaji, “Infection of Liza abu with parasitic crustaceans in waters of a fish farm in Al-Eskandaria district, Babylon province,” Journal of Babylon University, Pure Science, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 749–758, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  47. H. T. Hussain, F. T. Mhaisen, and A. L. Al-Rubaie, “Ectoparasitic infection of the common carp and silver carp fingerlings stocked during winter in Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm, Babylon province,” Journal of Babylon University, Pure Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 204–219, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. N. Yaseen, F. T. Mhaisen, and M. T. Al-Kaisey, “Effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves of henna Lawsonia inermis in treating the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. infected with the anchor worm, Lernaea cyprinacea,” Iraqi Journal of Agriculture, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 150–156, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  49. H. T. Hussain, E. H. Howaidi, T. S. Naif, K. R. Abd, and M. H. Takheal, “Study the relationship between the length of the fish and the incidence external parasites of common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Al-Shark Al-Awsat Fish Farm in Babylon Province,” Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  50. M. D. Ali and F. Shaaban, “Some species of parasites of freshwater fish raised in ponds and in Tigris-Al-Tharthar canal region,” in Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference of the Iraqi Veterinary Medical Association, pp. 44–46, Mosul, Iraq, October 1984.
  51. N. M. Ali, N. E. Salih, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Protozoa and Crustacea infesting three species of carp raised in ponds in Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 387–394, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  52. N. E. Salih, N. M. Ali, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Helminthic fauna of three species of carp raised in ponds in Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 369–386, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  53. F. T. Mhaisen, A. N. Balasem, G. H. Al-Khateeb, S. M. J. Al-Shaikh, J. M. Al-Jawda, and S. M. Haiawi, “Survey of parasites of three fish farms at Al-Latifiya, south Baghdad,” Marina Mesopotamica, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 218–224, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  54. H. T. Hussain, E. H. Hwaidi, H. H. Elewi, and H. M. AbidAli, “Survey of ectoparasitic infections on the common carp Cyprinus carpio in three fish farms at Al-Eskandriya, Babylon province,” Scientific Journal of University of Kerbala, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 126–131, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  55. A. L. Al-Rubaie, H. T. Hussain, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “The external parasites of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Technical Institute of Al-Mussayab Fish Farm,” Journal of Babylon University, Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 46–50, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. R. Asmar, A. N. Balasem, J. M. Al-Jawda, A. J. Hummadi, and T. K. Adday, “Study of the parasitic infections in some fish farms,” Report 7050-PO 152-2001, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. A. E. Al-Jubory, Influence of fertilizing the ponds of Cyprinus carpio on the infection with Lernaea cyprinacea [Higher Dipl. thesis], Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq, 2009.
  58. F. H. A. Al-Dulaimi, “Infection with a fish louse Argulus foliaceus L. in a goldfish (Carassius auratus) at earthern pond and aquarium fish in Babylon province, Iraq,” Journal of Babylon University, Pure Science, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 468–473, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  59. H. T. Hussain, T. S. Naief, and E. H. Hwaidi, “Comparative study of external parasitic infection in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) bred in monoculture and polyculture,” Scientific Journal of University of Kerbala, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 64–71, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  60. N. T. M. Al-Taei, Study of some of the environmental aspects for a group of the external parasitic animals for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in cages and pond at Al-Saddah/Babylon province [M. Tech. Thesis], Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq, 2013.
  61. H. M. J. Al-Sardee, Effect of quicklime on common carp infested with Lernaea cyprinacea L. [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 1992.
  62. S. M. J. Al-Shaikh, “Study of some important and common fish diseases in Iraq and methods of their control and prevention,” in Proceedings of the Joint Symposium of the Arab Union of Fish Producers and Arab Union Councils of Scientific Research, pp. 133–137, Baghdad, Iraq, December 1993.
  63. S. M. J. Al-Shaikh and H. M. J. Al-Sardee, “Gross pathological and histological changes in infection with the anchor worm and its treatment with quicklime,” Al-Tharwa Al-Samakia (Fisheries), vol. 13, pp. 95–97, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  64. S. M. J. Al-Shaikh, “Pathogenesis and treatment of Monogenea (Dactylogyrus) in fishes,” Veterinarian, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 213–217, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. L. Al-Rubaie, “Efficiency of propolis on ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis of Cyprinus carpio,” Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 54–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  66. M. Kirjušina and K. Vismanis, “Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Latvia,” FAO Fisheries Technical Report 369/3, FAO, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. N. Bhatti, “A note on the occurrence of costiasis disease in the stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) from Basrah waters,” Arab Gulf, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 216, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  68. D. W. Duszynski, L. Couch, and S. J. Upton, Coccidia (Eimeriidae) of Cypriniformes (Cyprinids), 2015, http://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/worldcoccidia/FISHBIB.
  69. N. M. Ali, N. E. Salih, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Parasitic fauna of some freshwater fishes from Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq. I: Protozoa,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 11–17, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  70. P. H. Herzog, “Untersuchungen über die parasiten der süßwasserfische des Irak,” Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaften, vol. 20, no. 2-3, pp. 132–147, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  71. S. O. K. Al-Salmany, Parasitic infection of some fish species from Euphrates River at Al-Qaim city, Anbar province [M.S. thesis], University of Tikrit, 2015.
  72. K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “The first record of the ciliated protozoan Trichodina cottidarum in Iraq on the gills of the common carp Cyprinus carpio,” Ibn Al-Haitham Journal for Pure and Applied Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1–6, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. Shamsuddin, I. A. Nader, and M. J. Al-Azzawi, “Parasites of common fishes from Iraq with special reference to larval form of Contracaecum (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae),” Bulletin of the Biological Research Centre, Baghdad, vol. 5, pp. 66–78, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  74. K. N. Abdul-Ameer, Study of the parasites of freshwater fishes from Tigris River in Salah Al-Dien province, Iraq [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 1989.
  75. Z. I. Fattohy, Studies on the parasites of certain teleostean fishes from the River Tigris, Mosul, Iraq [M.S. thesis], University of Mosul, 1975.
  76. H. M. H. Al-Awadi, F. T. Mhaisen, and F. F. Al-Joborae, “Helminth parasitic fauna of aquatic birds in Bahr Al-Najaf depression, mid Iraq,” Bulletin of Iraq Natural History Museum, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–15, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  77. N. M. Ali, A. R. Al-Jafery, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “New records of three digenetic trematodes on some freshwater fishes from Diyala River, Iraq,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Scientific Conference, Scientific Research Council, vol. 5, pp. 10–19, 1986.
  78. F. T. Mhaisen and E. S. Abul-Eis, “Parasitic helminths of eight species of aquatic birds in Babylon Fish Farm, Hilla, Iraq,” Zoology in the Middle East, vol. 7, pp. 115–120, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. T. I. Al-Alousi, S. M. J. Al-Shaikh, and N. R. Abdul-Rahman, “Incidence of metacercariae of Diplostomum Nordmann, 1832 in Iraqi freshwater fish,” Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 75, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  80. S. M. A. Abdullah, Survey of the parasites of fishes of Dokan Lake [M.S. thesis], University of Salahaddin, 1990.
  81. F. T. Mhaisen, “Worm cataract in freshwater fishes of Iraq,” Ibn Al-Haitham Journal for Pure and Applied Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 25–33, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  82. S. M. A. Abdullah, “Parasitic fauna of some freshwater fishes from Darbandikhan Lake, north of Iraq,” Journal of Dohuk University, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  83. A. V. Gussev, “Parasitic metazoans: class Monogenea,” in Key to the Parasites of Freshwater Fish, O. N. Bauer, Ed., vol. 2 of Fauna of the USSR, pp. 1–424, Nauka, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  84. A. B. Al-Zubaidy, “First record of three monogenic parasites species from Iraqian freshwater fishes,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University, Marine Sciences, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 83–94, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. F. T. Mhaisen, A. N. Balasem, G. H. Al-Khateeb, and K. R. Asmar, “Recording of five monogenetic trematodes for the first time from fishes of Iraq,” in Proceedings of the Abstracts of the 14th Scientific Conference of the Iraqi Biological Society, Najaf, Iraq, March 1997.
  86. F. T. Mhaisen, A. N. Balasem, G. H. Al-Khateeb, and K. R. Asmar, “Recording of five monogenetic trematodes for the first time from fishes of Iraq,” Bulletin of Iraq Natural History Museum, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  87. A. V. Gussev, N. M. Ali, K. N. Abdul-Ameer, S. M. Amin, and K. Molnár, “New and known species of Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from cyprinid fishes of the River Tigris, Iraq,” Systematic Parasitology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 229–237, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. N. M. Ali, A. R. Al-Jafery, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “New records of three monogenetic trematodes on some freshwater fishes from Diyala River, Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 253–266, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  89. B. A.-H. E. Al-Sa'adi, The parasitic fauna of fishes of Euphrates River: applied study in Al-Musaib city [M. Tech. thesis], Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq, 2007.
  90. B. A. Al-Sa'adi, F. T. Mhaisen, and A.-R. L. Al-Rubaie, “The first record of two monogeneans: Dactylogyrus dogieli Gussev, 1953 and Octomacrum europaeum Roman & Bykhovskii, 1956 from fishes of Iraq,” Basrah Journal of Agriculture Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  91. N. M. Ali, E. S. Abul-Eis, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “On the occurrence of fish parasites raised in manmade lakes,” in Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the European Ichthyologists, Budapest, Hungary, August 1988.
  92. A. N. Balasem, F. T. Mhaisen, K. R. Asmar, J. M. Al-Jawda, and T. K. Adday, “Record of two species of the monogenetic trematodes genus Dactylogyrus for the first time in Iraq on gills of the cyprinid fish Alburnus caeruleus,” Bulletin of Iraq Natural History Museum, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 11–16, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  93. A. A. Sadek, Ectoparasites of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings intensively stocked during autumn and winter [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 1999.
  94. N. M. Ali, N. E. Salih, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Parasitic fauna of some freshwater fishes from Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq. II: Trematoda,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 19–27, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  95. A. A. J. J. Al-Saadi, Ecology and taxonomy of parasites of some fishes and biology of Liza abu from Al-Husainia creek in Karbala province [Ph.D. thesis], University of Baghdad, 2007.
  96. F. S. Al-Nasiri, “First occurrence of the monogenetic trematode Diplozoon nipponicum Goto, 1891 in Iraq from common carp Cyprinus carpio (Pisces),” Iraqi Journal of Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 95–99, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  97. A.-R. A.-M. Rasheed, “First record of Diplozoon barbi Reichenbach-Klinke, 1951 from some freshwater fishes from Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq,” Zanco, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 5–15, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  98. I. A. Khotenovsky, Monogenea: Suborder Octomacrinea Khotenovsky, vol. 132 of Fauna of the USSR, Nauka, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1985.
  99. K. A. Khalifa, “Occurrence of parasitic infections in Iraqian fish ponds,” in Proceedings of the Abstracts of 2nd Scientific Conference, p. 333, Arab Biological Union, Fés, Morocco, March 1982.
  100. K. Molnár, “On the synonyms of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti,” Parasitologica Hungarica, vol. 10, pp. 61–62, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  101. Z. I. Al-Hasani, “Occurrence of two known helminthic parasites in two vertebrate hosts collected from Basrah, Iraq,” Dirasat, vol. 12, no. 7, p. 25, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  102. M. K. Mohammad, A. A. Al-Moussawi, and M. K. Jasim, “The parasitic fauna of the moorhen Gallinula chloropus chloropus L. in the Middle of Iraq,” Bulletin of Iraq Natural History Museum, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 41–49, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  103. A. A. J. J. Al-Saadi, A survey of alimentary canal helminths of some species of fishes from Tharthar Lake [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 1986.
  104. N. M. Ali, A. R. Al-Jafery, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Parasitic fauna of freshwater fishes in Diyala River, Iraq,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 163–181, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  105. N. M. Ali, N. E. Salih, and K. N. Abdul-Ameer, “Parasitic fauna of some freshwater fishes from Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq. IV: Nematoda,” Journal of Biological Science Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 35–45, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  106. F. T. Mhaisen, “Literature review and check lists of acanthocephalans of fishes of Iraq,” Al-Mustansiriya Journal of Science, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  107. R. S. Al-Sady, Description of a new species of Acanthocephala (Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis) and some ecological aspects of its infection to the mugilid fish Liza abu from Al-Faluja region, Al-Anbar province with observations on the experimental infection [M.S. thesis], University of Baghdad, 2000.
  108. O. M. Amin, R. S. S. Al-Sady, F. T. Mhaisen, and S. F. Bassat, “Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the freshwater mullet, Liza abu (Heckel), in Iraq,” Comparative Parasitology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 108–111, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. N. R. Khamees and F. T. Mhaisen, “Two copepod crustaceans as additional species to the parasitic fauna of fishes of Iraq,” Basrah Journal of Science, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  110. Z. I. F. Rahemo, “Two new species of Ergasilus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the gills of two Iraqi freshwater fishes,” Bulletin of Basrah Natural History Museum, vol. 5, pp. 39–59, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  111. J.-S. Ho, N. R. Khamees, and F. T. Mhaisen, “Ergasilid copepods (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on the mullet Liza abu in Iraq, with the description of a new species of Paraergasilus Markevich, 1937,” Systematic Parasitology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Z. I. F. Rahemo, “Recording of two new hosts of Lamproglena pulchella Nordmann, 1832 (Crustacea: Decapoda) in Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 82–83, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  113. M. I. Al-Hamed and L. Hermiz, “Experiments on the control of anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea),” Aquaculture, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus