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Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 8463097, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8463097
Research Article

Incidence and Trends of Leishmaniasis and Its Risk Factors in Humera, Western Tigray

1Aksum University Shire Campus, College of Agriculture, Veterinary Public Health, Department of Animal Science, Shire, Ethiopia
2Aksum University Shire Campus, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Shire, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Dawit Gebremichael Tedla; moc.oohay@59tiwad.rd

Received 21 April 2018; Revised 17 August 2018; Accepted 5 September 2018; Published 24 September 2018

Academic Editor: José F. Silveira

Copyright © 2018 Dawit Gebremichael Tedla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector borne disease, which constitutes a major public health concern in several tropical and subtropical countries. An estimated 4500 to 4000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur per year and over 3.2 million people are at risk of infection in the country. In Humera, VL epidemics are associated with migration of workers from nonendemic highlands into the visceral leishmaniasis endemic extensive farmlands. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the incidence and the risk factors of leishmaniasis in Humera, Western Tigray. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted using the hospital admission database on all patients admitted who have been suspected of having leishmaniasis infection and tested for rK39-based immune chromatographic test (ICT) at Kahsay Abera Hospital in Humera town from January 2012 to December 2017. Potential risk factors for leishmaniasis infection in human were collected from the hospital, which included categorical variables: age, sex, origin of place, clinical forms of leishmaniasis, mortality rates, and the occurrence of infections according to format of hospital. Results. A total of 26511 hospital discharged patients with diagnosis of leishmaniasis were identified, out of which 2232 (8.42%) human leishmaniasis cases were registered and of them 71 were dead from January 2012 to December 2017. Mortality rates of leishmaniasis were 18 (3.3%) in 2012, 16 (3.1%) in 2013, 15 (2.4%) in 2014, 8 (3.3%) in 2015, 9 (4.1%) in 2016, and 5 (5.4%) in 2017. Univariate analysis of the infection rate of leishmaniasis was based on the potential risk factors and found higher male infection rates than female (P <0.05) in all the study years. Origin of place was also significantly associated (P< 0.05) where labor migrants from highland to agricultural fields had higher infection rates than those who permanently lived in and around Humera. Trends in season of occurrence revealed that weeding and harvesting time (July–December) had higher incidence of leishmaniasis than dry time (January–June). Conclusion. Male labor migrants from the highlands older than 15 years of age were at the highest risks of leishmaniasis during weeding and harvest season. Therefore, awareness creation on the risks of sleeping outdoors and the impact of using of bed nets is imperative especially for labor migrants during weeding and harvesting season.