Table 2: Risk factors associated with S. haematobium egg excretion during the dry season.

VariableCategoryS. haematobiumUnadjusted OR#Adjusted ORP- value
Positive % (n)(95% CI)(95% CI)

Area of residenceMunyenge13.2 (46)5.21 (2.51-10.83)4.79 (2.20-10.4)<0.001
Ikata7.5 (25)2.78 (1.27-6.05)3.68 (1.59-8.54)0.002
Bafia2.8 (9)REFREF
χ2; P value24.416; <0.001

SexMale8.8 (38)1.21 (0.76-1.91)NA
Female7.4 (42)REF
χ2; P value0.638; 0.425

Age group(years)< 516.3 (14)2.54 (1.12-5.77)2.0 (0.81-4.94)0.13
5 - 156.9 (33)0.97 (0.49-1.93)0.42 (0.19-0.91)0.028
16 - 397.8 (21)1.20 (0.58-2.52)0.71 (0.32-1.60)0.41
≥ 407.1 (12)REFREF
χ2; P value8.958; 0.030

Educational levelPrimary9.1 (61)1.64 (0.96-2.79)1.59 (0.88-2.85)0.124
Secondary5.8 (19)REFREF
χ2; P value3.492; 0.322

OccupationFarming7.9 (28)1.23 (0.61-2.48)NA
Pupil9.2 (40)1.46 (0.74-2.84)
Student6.5 (12)REF
Housewife0 (0)-----
χ2; P value5.48; 0.360

Source of waterStream only8.2 (52)0.99 (0.61-1.60)1.1 (0.30-3.72)0.92
Stream and piped water8.2 (28)REFREF
Piped water only0 (0)-------------
χ2; P value2.137; 0.343

Stream activityHouse chores and bathing8.0 (39)1.28 (0.58-2.81)0.62 (0.27-1.47)0.28
House chores only9.1 (33)1.48 (0.66-3.29)1.03 (0.42-2.51)0.95
Bathing only6.3 (8)REFREF
χ2; P value1.011; 0.603

Frequency to stream++ per dayMore than thrice18.0 (25)5.82 (2.77-12.21)8.43 (3.71-19.13)<0.001
Thrice9.9 (19)2.91 (1.35-6.27)4.48 (1.93-10.41)<0.001
Twice7.7 (21)2.22 (1.05-4.69)3.63 (1.64-8.01)0.001
Hardly5.6 (4)1.58 (0.49-5.13)1.07 (0.31-3.72)0.92
Once3.6 (11)REFREF
χ2; P value27.23; <0.001

χ2 = Pearson Chi-square test; OR = odd ratio; aOR = adjusted OR using multivariate regression analysis.