(a) Setup in a hospital’s operating room
(b) Endowrist instrument end effector
Figure 1: (a) Surgeon operating da Vinci system (by Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for telesurgery. (b) Endowrist is a feature of the robotic system, with multi-DOF at its end effectors. The robotic system provides high dexterity, hand-tremor cancellation, and three-dimensional views for the endoscopic surgery [4].