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Journal of Robotics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 959013, 15 pages
Review Article

Robotics Middleware: A Comprehensive Literature Survey and Attribute-Based Bibliography

School of Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06604, USA

Received 21 August 2011; Revised 15 January 2012; Accepted 29 January 2012

Academic Editor: Yangmin Li

Copyright © 2012 Ayssam Elkady and Tarek Sobh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Autonomous robots are complex systems that require the interaction between numerous heterogeneous components (software and hardware). Because of the increase in complexity of robotic applications and the diverse range of hardware, robotic middleware is designed to manage the complexity and heterogeneity of the hardware and applications, promote the integration of new technologies, simplify software design, hide the complexity of low-level communication and the sensor heterogeneity of the sensors, improve software quality, reuse robotic software infrastructure across multiple research efforts, and to reduce production costs. This paper presents a literature survey and attribute-based bibliography of the current state of the art in robotic middleware design. The main aim of the survey is to assist robotic middleware researchers in evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches and their appropriateness for their applications. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive set of appropriate bibliographic references that are classified based on middleware attributes.