3D Distance Measurement from a Camera to a Mobile Vehicle, Using Monocular VisionRead the full article
Journal of Sensors publishes research focused on all aspects of sensors, from their theory and design, to the applications of complete sensing devices.
Chief Editor, Professor Harith Ahmad, is currently the director of the Photonics Research Center, University of Malaya, Malaysia. His current research is in the exploration of various 2D and 3D nanomaterials for optoelectronics applications.
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End-Effector Pose Estimation in Complex Environments Using Complementary Enhancement and Adaptive Fusion of Multisensor
Redundant manipulators are suitable for working in narrow and complex environments due to their flexibility. However, a large number of joints and long slender links make it hard to obtain the accurate end-effector pose of the redundant manipulator directly through the encoders. In this paper, a pose estimation method is proposed with the fusion of vision sensors, inertial sensors, and encoders. Firstly, according to the complementary characteristics of each measurement unit in the sensors, the original data is corrected and enhanced. Furthermore, an improved Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is adopted for data fusion by establishing the nonlinear motion prediction of the end-effector and the synchronization update model of the multirate sensors. Finally, the radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to adaptively adjust the fusion parameters. It is verified in experiments that the proposed method achieves better performances on estimation error and update frequency than the original extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm, especially in complex environments.
Spatial-Temporal Simulations of Soil Moisture Content in a Large Basin of the Loess Plateau, China
Soil moisture is a crucial factor limiting the growth and survival of plants on the Loess Plateau. Its level has a severe impact on plants’ growth and development and the type and distribution characteristics of communities. This study area is the Jihe Basin in the Loess Plateau, China. Multiple linear regression models with different environmental variables (land use, topographic and meteorological factors, etc.) were developed to simulate soil moisture’s spatial and temporal changes by integrating field experiments, indoor analysis, and GIS spatial analysis. The model performances were evaluated in the Jihe Basin, with soil moisture content measurements. The result shows that soil moisture content is positively correlated with soil bulk density, monthly rainfall, topographic wetness index, land use coefficient, and slope aspect coefficient but negatively correlated with the monthly-averaged temperature and the relative elevation coefficient. The selected variables are all related to the soil moisture content and can account for 75% of the variations of soil moisture content, and the remaining 25% of the variations are related to other factors. Comparing the simulated and measured values at all sampling points shows that the average error of all the simulated values is 0.09, indicating that the simulation has high accuracy. The spatial distribution of soil moisture content is significantly affected by land use and topographic factors, and seasonal variation is remarkable in the year. Seasonal variation of soil moisture content is determined by the seasonal variation of rainfall and the air temperature (determining evaporation) and vegetation growth cycle. Therefore, the proposed model can simulate the spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture content and support developing the soil and water loss model on a basin scale.
Reduced Graphene Oxide/Gold Nanoparticles Modified Screen-Printed Electrode for the Determination of Palmitic Acid
Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced in the world today. The quality of palm oil is crucial to be investigated, and one of the quality indices is free fatty acid (FFA) content. Therefore, in this study, an electrochemical approach for the determination of FFA has been explored as an alternative to replace the conventional method (titration method). The electrochemical method was developed based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) via drop-casting technique. The voltammetric behaviour of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3) in the presence of palmitic acid at the modified electrode was investigated in an acetonitrile/water mixture containing lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). The electrochemical detection of palmitic acid was based on the voltammetric reduction of VK3 to form the corresponding hydroquinone which is proportional to the concentration of palmitic acid. Under optimum conditions, the developed method showed a good linear relationship towards palmitic acid in the concentration ranging from 0.192 mM to 0.833 mM with the detection limit of 0.015 mM. The exploration of the developed system is expected to achieve high sensitivity and excellent selectivity towards the determination of FFA content in palm oil.
A Unified Calibration Paradigm for a Better Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Modes of Elastic Tube and Vascular Elasticity
Although two modes of elastic tube (ET) and vascular elasticity (VE) have been well explored for cuffless continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring estimation, the initial calibration with these two models could be derived from different mathematical mechanisms for BP estimation. The study is aimed at evaluating the performance of VE and ET models by means of an advanced point-to-point (aPTP) pairing calibration. The cuff BPs were only taken up while the signals of PPG and ECG were synchronously acquired from individual subjects. Two popular VE models together with one representative ET model were designated to study aPTP as a unified assessment criterion. The VE model has demonstrated the stronger correlation of 0.89 and 0.86 of SBP and DBP, respectively, and the lower estimated BP error of (4.55) mmHg and (3.38) mmHg of SBP and DBP, respectively, than the ET model. With the ET model, there is a significant difference between the methods of conventional least-square (LS) calibration and aPTP calibration (). These results showed that the VE model surpasses the ET model under the same uniform calibration. The outcome has been unveiled that the selection of initial calibration methods was vital to work out diastolic BP with the ET model. The study revealed an evident fact about initial sensitivity between the modes of different BP estimation and initial calibration.
A Power Management IC Used for Monitoring and Protection of Li-Ion Battery Packs
A power management system is a critical component of the system which needs Li-ion battery packs for power supply. This paper proposes a fully integrated, high-precision, and high-reliability Integrated Circuit (IC) for the power management system of Li-ion battery packs. It has full protection circuits including overvoltage, overtemperature, and overcurrent circuits with measuring voltage accuracy of 0.2 mV and a 15-bit internal Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). This IC is designed to protect the system automatically and measure the battery cells’ voltage, temperature, and charging or discharging current with high precision. It also provides an I2C interface to communicate with an external Microcontroller Unit (MCU), making it achievable to perform battery cells’ voltage balancing and SOC estimation with 0.1% estimation accuracy in an hour.
An Instantaneous Engine Speed Estimation Method Using Multiple Matching Synchrosqueezing Transform
Instantaneous rotational speed measurement of the engine is crucial in routine inspection and maintenance of an automobile engine. Since the contact measurement of rotational speed is not always available, the vibration measurement has been used for noncontact rotational speed estimation methods. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the noncontact estimation methods by analyzing engine vibration frequency is not satisfactory due to the influence of noise and the strong nonstationary characteristic of the vibration signal. To overcome these problems, based on the multiple matching synchrosqueezing transform (MSST) (MMSST, improved MSST with multiple squeeze operations), a novel noncontact method is proposed to accurately estimate the instantaneous rotational speed of automobile engine in this paper. Firstly, a MMSST is proposed to process the vibration signal to obtain a concentrated time-frequency (TF) representation. Secondly, the instantaneous frequency (IF) detection algorithm is employed to extract the fundamental frequency from the TF result. Finally, the rotational speed of the engine is calculated according to the relationship between the fundamental frequency and rotational speed. Results from numerical simulations and test on real engine have proven that the proposed method can obtain much higher frequency resolution and more precise IF estimation of the engine vibration signal and more accurate rotational speed estimation result compared with the MSST method. Furthermore, the proposed method is verified to have a stronger noise robustness and can provide satisfactory estimation results for engine vibration signal containing nonlinear frequency-modulated components.