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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 258489, 15 pages
Review Article

YSZ-Based Oxygen Sensors and the Use of Nanomaterials: A Review from Classical Models to Current Trends

1FAE—Francisco Albero S.A., R&D Advanced Materials, Rafael Barradas 19, 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
2MIND/IN2UB, Electronics Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Received 1 January 2009; Revised 1 June 2009; Accepted 23 July 2009

Academic Editor: Giorgio Sberveglieri

Copyright © 2009 Carlos López-Gándara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This work reviews physicochemical models on the operation and the response of potentiometric oxygen gas sensors based on ion-conducting electrolytes. The aim for describing the electric response and some properties like response time, ionic conductivity, catalytic activity, or gas selectivity of these devices has led to the development of some models in the last decades. These models have provided information on relations between the response of the sensors, their design and fabrications process, and some morphological properties, like grain size of the electrolyte, diffusion on protective layers, or density of three-phase boundary points in the measuring electrodes. Current trends on improving catalysis, gas selectivity, and activation energy for ion conducting by using nanomaterials are described as well.