Figure 2: Control experiments demonstrating that the sensor surfaces are relatively nonfouling to the 10%, 1%, and 0.1% dilutions of complex media: (a) pufferfish liver extract, (b) pufferfish muscle extract, and (c) urine. The complex media were diluted in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.5 with 50 mM NaCl and 200 μg/mL BSA (SAB). A 1 nm SPR wavelength shift at 750 nm to 751 nm represents a protein surface coverage of ~161 pg/mm2.