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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2011, Article ID 609758, 7 pages
Research Article

Direct Immunosensor Design Based on the Electrochemical Reduction of 4-((4-Nitrophenyl)ethynyl)benzenethiol Monolayers

1School of Science, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501-3113, USA
2School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-1000, USA
3Department of Chemistry and Physics, Longwood University, Farmville, VA 239093-1801, USA
4Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-2006, USA

Received 25 May 2011; Accepted 13 August 2011

Academic Editor: Ignacio Matias

Copyright © 2011 Dwight A. Williams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The synthesis and characterization of novel N-arylhydroxylamine-based molecular wires are described for use in the site-directed covalent immobilization of whole IgG antibodies onto gold electrode surfaces. The hydroxylamine, electrochemically generated in situ from reduction of the corresponding nitrobenzene, is stable under a wide range of solution conditions and reacts selectively with carbohydrate away from the antibody-binding site to allow the development of immunosensors with maximal activity. Cyclic voltammetric responses have shown a direct correlation between the structure and length of the molecular wire and its stability and concentration at the electrode surface.