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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2014, Article ID 245831, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/245831
Research Article

Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

1Sensor Electronic and Instrumentation Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, BP 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco
2Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, BP 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco

Received 11 May 2014; Accepted 4 July 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Daniel Matatagui

Copyright © 2014 Madiha Bougrini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and support vector machines (SVMs). Excellent results were obtained in the differentiation between unadulterated and adulterated argan oil with sunflower one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to demonstrate whether the combined e-nose and e-tongue technologies could be successfully applied to the detection of adulteration of argan oil.