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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2014, Article ID 782789, 13 pages
Review Article

Autonomic Wireless Sensor Networks: A Systematic Literature Review

1PPGI-iNCE/DCC-IM/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computación, University of Malaga, Málaga, Spain
3INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

Received 16 October 2014; Revised 29 November 2014; Accepted 29 November 2014; Published 29 December 2014

Academic Editor: Andrea Cusano

Copyright © 2014 Jesús M. T. Portocarrero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Autonomic computing (AC) is a promising approach to meet basic requirements in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and its principles can be applied to efficiently manage nodes operation and optimize network resources. Middleware for WSNs supports the implementation and basic operation of such networks. In this systematic literature review (SLR) we aim to provide an overview of existing WSN middleware systems that address autonomic properties. The main goal is to identify which development approaches of AC are used for designing WSN middleware system, which allow the self-management of WSN. Another goal is finding out which interactions and behavior can be automated in WSN components. We drew the following main conclusions from the SLR results: (i) the selected studies address WSN concerns according to the self- properties of AC, namely, self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, and self-protection; (ii) the selected studies use different approaches for managing the dynamic behavior of middleware systems for WSN, such as policy-based reasoning, context-based reasoning, feedback control loops, mobile agents, model transformations, and code generation. Finally, we identified a lack of comprehensive system architecture designs that support the autonomy of sensor networking.