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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 286270, 8 pages
Research Article

Impact of Dynamic Path Loss Models in an Urban Obstacle Aware Ad Hoc Network Environment

1Department of Computer Science, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
4Department of Multimedia, Sungkyul University, Anyang-si 430-742, Republic of Korea

Received 2 December 2014; Accepted 3 February 2015

Academic Editor: Yasuko Y. Maruo

Copyright © 2015 Kashif Amjad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study highlights the importance of the physical layer and its impact on network performance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This was demonstrated by simulating various MANET scenarios using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2) with enhanced capability by adding propagation loss models (e.g., modified Two-Ray Ground model, ITU Line of Sight and Nonline of Sight (ITU-LoS and NLoS) model into street canyons and combined path loss and shadowing model (C-Shadowing)). The simulation results were then compared with the original Two-Ray Ground (TRG) model already available into NS-2. The scenario primarily simulated was that of a mobile environment using Random Way Point (RWP) mobility model with a variable number of obstacles in the simulation field (such as buildings, etc., causing variable attenuation) in order to analyze the extent of communication losses in various propagation loss models. Performance of the Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol was also analyzed in an ad hoc environment with 20 nodes.