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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2015, Article ID 401353, 10 pages
Research Article

Experimental Results for Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor in Shallow Water

1Underwater Acoustic Systems Engineering, METEKSAN Savunma San. A. S., Bilkent Cyberpark F-Building, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Turgut Ozal University, 06010 Ankara, Turkey

Received 8 March 2015; Revised 29 April 2015; Accepted 29 April 2015

Academic Editor: Fanli Meng

Copyright © 2015 Alper Bereketli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We study the performances of several computationally efficient and simple techniques for estimating direction of arrival (DOA) of an underwater acoustic source using a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) in shallow water. Underwater AVS is a compact device, which consists of one hydrophone and three accelerometers in a packaged form, measuring scalar pressure and three-dimensional acceleration simultaneously at a single position. A very controlled experimental setup is prepared to test how well-known techniques, namely, arctan-based, intensity-based, time domain beamforming, and frequency domain beamforming methods, perform in estimating DOA of a source in different circumstances. Experimental results reveal that for almost all cases beamforming techniques perform best. Moreover, arctan-based method, which is the simplest of all, provides satisfactory results for practical purposes.