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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2015, Article ID 915837, 13 pages
Research Article

Axis-Exchanged Compensation and Gait Parameters Analysis for High Accuracy Indoor Pedestrian Dead Reckoning

1Key Laboratory of Special Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
2Microelectronic Research and Development Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
3Key Laboratory of Advanced Displays and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China

Received 22 September 2014; Revised 12 January 2015; Accepted 27 January 2015

Academic Editor: Zhenhua Zhu

Copyright © 2015 Honghui Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) is an effective way for navigation coupled with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) or weak GNSS signal environment like indoor scenario. However, indoor location with an accuracy of 1 to 2 meters determined by PDR based on MEMS-IMU is still very challenging. For one thing, heading estimation is an important problem in PDR because of the singularities. For another thing, walking distance estimation is also a critical problem for pedestrian walking with randomness. Based on the above two problems, this paper proposed axis-exchanged compensation and gait parameters analysis algorithm to improve the navigation accuracy. In detail, an axis-exchanged compensation factored quaternion algorithm is put forward first to overcome the singularities in heading estimation without increasing the amount of computation. Besides, real-time heading is updated by R-adaptive Kalman filter. Moreover, gait parameters analysis algorithm can be divided into two steps: cadence detection and step length estimation. Thus, a method of cadence classification and interval symmetry is proposed to detect the cadence accurately. Furthermore, a step length model adjusted by cadence is established for step length estimation. Compared to the traditional PDR navigation, experimental results showed that the error of navigation reduces 32.6%.