Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 5302681, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5302681
Research Article

Use of a Secondary Current Sensor in Plasma during Electron-Beam Welding with Focus Scanning for Process Control

1Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 29 Komsomolsky Av., Perm 614990, Russia
2Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 14 August 2016; Accepted 12 October 2016

Academic Editor: Stephane Evoy

Copyright © 2016 Dmitriy Trushnikov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. U. Dilthey, “Estimated determination of kinetics of diffusion phase trans-formations in low-alloy steels in beam welding,” in Avtomaticheskaia Svarka, U. Dilthey, A. V. Gumenyuk, and G. A. Turichin, Eds., 2006. View at Google Scholar
  2. U. Dilthey, A. Goumeniouk, V. Lopota, G. Turichin, and E. Valdaitseva, “Development of a theory for alloying element losses during laser beam welding,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Bakish, Introduction to Electron Beam Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  4. G. M. Mladenov, “Physical and thermal processes during electron beam welding,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 331–345, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Petrov, C. Georgiev, and G. Petrov, “Experimental investigation of weld pool formation in electron beam welding,” Vacuum, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 339–343, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. DebRoy and S. A. David, “Physical processes in fusion welding,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 85–112, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. G. Mladenov and S. Sabchevski, “Potential distribution and space-charge neutralization in technological intense electron beams—an overview,” Vacuum, vol. 62, no. 2-3, pp. 113–122, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Gabovich, L. Simonenko, I. Soloshenko, and N. Shkorina, “Excitation of ion oscillations in plasma by a fast beam of negative ion,” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1710–1716, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  9. U. Dilthey, A. Goumeniouk, O. K. Nazarenko, and K. S. Akopjantz, “Mathematical simulation of the influence of ion-compensation, self-magnetic field and scattering on an electron beam during welding,” Vacuum, vol. 62, no. 2-3, pp. 87–96, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Y. Ho, M. Y. Wen, Y. H. Tsai, and C. Ma, “Potential and electron density calculated for freely expanding plasma by an electron beam,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 1, Article ID 013306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Pinar, B. Wijnen, G. C. Anzalone, T. C. Havens, P. G. Sanders, and J. M. Pearce, “Low-cost open-source voltage and current monitor for gas metal arc weld 3D printing,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2015, Article ID 876714, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Trushnikov, V. Belenkiy, V. Shchavlev, A. Piskunov, A. Abdullin, and G. Mladenov, “Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 17433–17445, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Wang, S. Yamane, T. Koike et al., “Image processing method for automatic tracking of the weld line in plasma robotic welding,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1865–1872, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Wang, S. Yamane, H. Suzuki et al., “Tracking and height control in plasma robotic welding using digital CCD camera,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 531–542, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X. Gao, D. You, and S. Katayama, “The high frequency characteristics of laser reflection and visible light during solid state disk laser welding,” Laser Physics Letters, vol. 12, no. 7, Article ID 076003, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Y. You, X. D. Gao, and S. Katayama, “Review of laser welding monitoring,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 181–201, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. D. Laptenok, A. V. Murygin, and D. V. Tikhonenko, “X-ray sensor for guiding the electron beam on the joint in electron-beam welding,” Welding International, vol. 20, pp. 894–900, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. V. Y. Braverman, D. A. Skurikhin, S. G. Bayakin, V. F. Shabanov, and V. V. Bashenko, “Device for focusing and fusion depth controlling by characteristic X-ray during electron beam welding with modulation of focusing level,” Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo, vol. 1, pp. 16–19, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  19. U. Dilhey, “Diagnosis and beam measurement in non-vacuum electron beam welding,” Elektrotechnika i Elektronika, vol. 41, no. 5-6, pp. 61–65, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. W. Elmer and A. T. Teruya, Enhanced modified faraday cup for determi-nation of power density distribution of electron beams, US, Pat. 6300755, 2001.
  21. J. W. Elmer and A. T. Teruya, “Fast method for measuring power density distribution of non-circular and irregular electron beams,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 51–58, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Koleva and G. Mladenov, “Signal formation analysis of the electron beam current distribution measurements,” Vacuum, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 457–462, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. W. Elmer, A. T. Teruya, and D. W. O'Brien, “Tomographic imaging of noncircular and irregular electron beam current density distributions,” Welding Journal, vol. 72, no. 11, p. 493, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  24. V. Y. Braverman, D. A. Skurikhin, S. G. Bayakin, V. F. Shabanov, and V. V. Bashenko, “Device for focusing and fusion depth controlling by characteristic x-ray during electron beam welding with modulation of focusing level,” Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo, vol. 1, pp. 16–19, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Olszewska and K. Friedel, “Control of the electron beam active zone position in electron beam welding processes,” Vacuum, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 29–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. N. Trushnikov, E. G. Koleva, G. M. Mladenov, V. Y. Belenkiy, and E. S. Salomatova, “Weld formation control at electron beam welding with focal spot scanning,” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1062–1068, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. N. Trushnikov, V. Y. Belenki'y, G. M. Mladenov, and N. S. Portnov, “Secondary-Emission signal for weld formation monitoring and control in eletron beam welding (EBW),” Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 892–897, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. N. Trushnikov, V. E. Shchavlev, G. M. Mladenov, and L. N. Krotov, “Investigation of processes in the keyhole of electron-beam welding by monitoring the secondary current signal in the plasma,” in In-Situ Studies with Photons, Neutrons and Electrons Scattering II, pp. 217–230, Springer International, Berlin, Germany, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  29. D. N. Trushnikov and G. M. Mladenov, “Numerical model of the plasma formation at electron beam welding,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 117, no. 1, Article ID 013301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. M. Yazovskikh, D. N. Trushnikov, V. Y. Belen'kii, and L. N. Krotov, “The mechanism of secondary emission processes in electron beam welding with the modulation of the electron beam,” Welding International, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 724–729, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  31. E. G. Koleva, G. M. Mladenov, D. N. Trushnikov, and V. Y. Belenkiy, “Signal emitted from plasma during electron-beam welding with deflection oscillations of the beam,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 214, no. 9, pp. 1812–1819, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. N. Trushnikov and V. Y. Belen'kii, “Investigation of the formation of the secondary current signal in plasma in electron beam welding with oscillations of the electron beam,” Welding International, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 877–880, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Max, Méthodes et Techniques de Traitement du Signal et Applications aux Mesures Physiques, vol. 1, Jean-Louis Lacoume, Paris, France, 3rd edition, 1981.
  34. D. N. Trushnikov, G. M. Mladenov, V. Y. Belenkiy, E. G. Koleva, and S. V. Varushkin, “Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding,” AIP Advances, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID 047105, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. N. Trushnikov, E. G. Koleva, G. M. Mladenov, and A. V. Shcherbakov, “Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations,” Bulletin of the Siberian State Aerospace University, vol. 3, no. 55, pp. 224–230, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  36. I. Y. Smurov, A. A. Uglov, A. M. Lashyn, P. Matteazzi, L. Covelli, and V. Tagliaferri, “Modelling of pulse-periodic energy flow action on metallic materials,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 34, no. 4-5, pp. 961–971, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Krstic, I. Kanellakopoulos, and P. V. Kokotovic, Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  38. K. J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, Addison-Wesley, Boston, Mass, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
  39. A. Arora, Y. V. Hote, and M. Rastogi, “Design of PID controller for unstable system,” Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 140, pp. 19–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Transactions of the ASME, vol. 64, pp. 759–768, 1942. View at Google Scholar