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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017, Article ID 5378403, 14 pages
Research Article

Multihopping Multilevel Clustering Heterogeneity-Sensitive Optimized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

1School of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
2Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Wah Cantt, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Xiaopeng Hu; nc.ude.tuld@uhpx

Received 8 February 2017; Revised 24 May 2017; Accepted 12 June 2017; Published 1 August 2017

Academic Editor: Hana Vaisocherova

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Aslam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Effective utilization of energy resources in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has become challenging under uncertain distributed cluster-formation and single-hop intercluster communication capabilities. So, sensor nodes are forced to operate at expensive full rate transmission power level continuously during whole network operation. These challenging network environments experience unwanted phenomena of drastic energy consumption and packet drop. In this paper, we propose an adaptive immune Multihopping Multilevel Clustering (MHMLC) protocol that executes a Hybrid Clustering Algorithm (HCA) to perform optimal centralized selection of Cluster-Heads (CHs) within radius of centrally located Base Station (BS) and distributed CHs selection in the rest of network area. HCA of MHMLC also produces optimal intermediate CHs for intercluster multihop communications that develop heterogeneity-aware economical links. This hybrid cluster-formation facilitates the sensors to function at short range transmission power level that enhances link quality and avoids packet drop. The simulation environments produce fair comparison among proposed MHMLC and existing state-of-the-art routing protocols. Experimental results give significant evidence of better performance of the proposed model in terms of network lifetime, stability period, and data delivery ratio.