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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6468427, 15 pages
Research Article

Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

Department of Robotics, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Yang Tian

Received 5 April 2017; Revised 23 June 2017; Accepted 3 July 2017; Published 22 August 2017

Academic Editor: Hana Vaisocherova

Copyright © 2017 Yang Tian and Shugen Ma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR) by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM and Particle Filter (PF) SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.