Table 2: “5 min ahead” prediction models based on GBDT.

ModelDetectors for predictionNumber of input variablesSpatial factorsMAPEMAEAccuracy sorting

Model 14No0.0765217.5311
Model 27Upstream0.0757017.37
Model 37Downstream0.0764817.5110
Model 410Upstream0.0748017.223
Model 510Downstream0.0769017.6112
Model 610Upstream and downstream0.0758017.328
Model 713Upstream and downstream0.0751017.34
Model 813Upstream and downstream0.0763017.489
Model 916Upstream and downstream0.0756017.46
Model 1013Upstream0.0745816.991
Model 1113Downstream0.0858322.1415
Model 1222Upstream and downstream0.0773818.1513
Model 1316Upstream0.0755017.175
Model 1416Downstream0.0850421.9814
Model 1528Upstream and downstream0.0746417.202