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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017, Article ID 8105954, 15 pages
Research Article

AH-MAC: Adaptive Hierarchical MAC Protocol for Low-Rate Wireless Sensor Network Applications

1Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Dahuk, Iraq
2Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Adnan Ismail Al-Sulaifanie; moc.liamg@7002hia

Received 24 August 2016; Revised 28 October 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016; Published 17 January 2017

Academic Editor: Xiongchuan Huang

Copyright © 2017 Adnan Ismail Al-Sulaifanie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical MAC protocol (AH-MAC) with cross-layer optimization for low-rate and large-scale wireless sensor networks. The main goal of the proposed protocol is to combine the strengths of LEACH and IEEE 802.15.4 while offsetting their weaknesses. The predetermined cluster heads are supported with an energy harvesting circuit, while the normal nodes are battery-operated. To prolong the network’s operational lifetime, the proposed protocol transfers most of the network’s activities to the cluster heads while minimizing the node’s activity. Some of the main features of this protocol include energy efficiency, self-configurability, scalability, and self-healing. The simulation results showed great improvement of the AH-MAC over LEACH protocol in terms of energy consumption and throughput. AH-MAC consumes eight times less energy while improving throughput via acknowledgment support.