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Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9802610, 13 pages
Research Article

Performance Analysis of Two-Dimensional Dead Reckoning Based on Vehicle Dynamic Sensors during GNSS Outages

1Intelligent Devices and Systems Research Group, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, 333 Techno Jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 711-873, Republic of Korea
2Department of Geoinformatics Engineering, Kyungil University, 50 Gamasil-gil, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk 712-701, Republic of Korea
3Department of Geoinformatics, University of Seoul, 163 Seoulsiripdaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Jay Hyoun Kwon

Received 17 April 2017; Accepted 25 July 2017; Published 7 September 2017

Academic Editor: Lei Zhang

Copyright © 2017 Joong-hee Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Recently, to improve safety and convenience in driving, numerous sensors are mounted on cars to operate advanced driver assistant systems. Among various sensors, vehicle dynamic sensors can measure the vehicle motions such as speed and rotational angular speed for dead reckoning, which can be applied to develop a land vehicle positioning system to overcome the weaknesses of the GNSS technique. In this paper, three land vehicle positioning algorithms that integrate GNSS with vehicle dynamic sensors including a wheel speed sensor (WSS), a yaw rate sensor (YRS), and a steering angle sensor (SAS) are implemented, and then a performance evaluation was conducted during GNSS outages. Using a loosely coupled strategy, three integration algorithms are designed, namely, GNSS/WSS, GNSS/WSS/YRS, and GNSS/WSS/YRS/SAS. The performance of the three types of integration algorithm is evaluated based on two data sets. The results indicate that both the GNSS/WSS/YRS integration and the GNSS/WSS/YRS/SAS integration could estimate the horizontal position with meter-level accuracy during 30-second GNSS outages. However, the GNSS/WSS integration would provide an unstable navigation solution during GNSS outages due to the accuracy limitation of the computed yaw rate using WSS.