Vitamin D and Vitamin D Analogs as Adjuncts to Field Therapy Treatments for Actinic Keratoses: Current Research and Future ApproachesRead the full article
Journal of Skin Cancer publishes clinical and translational research on the detection, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of skin malignancies.
Journal of Skin Cancer maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Comparison of the Effect of Alpha and Hydrocortisone Ointments on Prevention of Acute Skin Complications Due to Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients
Background. Radiotherapy in breast cancer patients is associated with acute and delayed side effects. This study aimed to compare the effect of alpha and hydrocortisone 1% (H1%) ointments on prevention of acute skin complications due to radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods. This clinical trial was conducted on 86 patients with breast cancer in the radiotherapy center of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran. Using the records, the patients were selected and randomly divided into alpha and H1% groups after obtaining informed consent. The severity of dermatitis, complications, and patient complaints during treatment were evaluated weekly for up to 6 weeks by RTOG criteria. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Results. At the end of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks, 10 (11.7%), 25 (29.1%), 53 (61.6%), and 28 (32.6%) patients had skin complications, respectively. In weeks 5 and 6 in the H1 group, the incidence of complications was higher ( = 0.001). The frequency of pain and burning complaints at the end of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks was 15 (17.4%), 37 (43.0%), 52 (60.5%), and 1(1.2%), respectively. Pain and burning intensity in the fourth and fifth weeks in the H1 group was lower than alpha ( = 0010). Complaints of skin itching at the end of the third, fourth, and fifth weeks were 16 (18.6%), 25 (29.1%), and 28 (32.6), respectively. This complication was lower in the H1% group during these weeks ( < 0.05). Conclusion. Alpha ointment is more effective than H1% in relieving pain and burning, preventing complications except itching. It seems using an alpha ointment or combining it with H1% is an appropriate strategy to reduce the rate of injuries and skin complications of radiotherapy.
Keratinocyte Skin Cancers in General Surgery: The Impact of Anaesthesia, Trainee Supervision, and Choice of Reconstruction
Background. Keratinocyte skin cancers are common in Australia, incurring disproportionately high health expenditure in comparison with mortality. General surgeons often excise these lesions as day-surgery. Balancing individual complexities of these cancers with trainee supervision and health expenditure is key to deliver efficacious care and maintain day-surgery volume for patients during a pandemic. Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed, examining 414 procedures from January 2019 to December 2020. Pathology was reviewed, and benign lesions excluded. Complete excision was based on 5 mm margins for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 0.5 mm microscopic margins for low-risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes, and 3 mm for high-risk. Results of trainee-performed local anesthetic (LA) excision and general anesthetic (GA) excision (consultant scrubbed) were compared. Results. 288 excisions were reviewed for completeness, location, and reconstruction modality. 69% were BCC (199), and 31% were SCC (89). These were excised under GA (72.5%) and LA (27.5%). 25.6% of BCC excisions were “close,” and 22.6% were “positive” under GA, whilst 31% were “close” and 15.5% were “positive” under LA. 52.8% of SCC excisions were “close,” and 7.8% were “positive” under GA, compared with 42.8% “close” and 9.5% “positive” under LA. Complex reconstruction (skin graft, flap) was more common under GA (38% SCC and 36.1% BCC), but occurred at a modest rate under LA (22% BCC and 28.5% SCC). Conclusions. The results confirm that comparable margins and reconstruction options are achievable when excising keratinocyte cancers under LA by surgical trainees. This is fundamental in cost and timesaving, as well as reducing risk of aerosolisation of virus during GA, in a pandemic.
Effectiveness of Sun Protection Interventions Delivered to Adolescents in a Secondary School Setting: A Systematic Review
Aim. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the evidence of the effectiveness of interventions targeted to adolescents (13 to 18 years inclusive) and delivered in a secondary school setting with the purpose of improving sun protection behaviour, reducing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, and/or improving physiological outcomes related to UVR exposure (such as erythema or naevi development). Methods. Peer-reviewed journal articles were identified from seven database searches (Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Medline, PsycInfo, and Web of Science) to January 2020, forward citation searches of relevant articles, and monitoring of WHO INTERSUN UVR list server for recent publications. Relevant articles were collected and critically analysed using the Effective Public Health Practice framework. Two reviewers independently reviewed, and when deemed eligible, extracted data and performed quality appraisals for each study. Results. Thirteen studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. There were no studies that met a “strong” quality rating, five received a “moderate” quality rating, and eight studies a “weak” quality rating. Three of those with a moderate rating found evidence for effectiveness. The most promising interventions overall (including the pilot/uncontrolled studies) were those that moved beyond a pure health education approach and used innovative approaches such as the provision of shade, or use of technology (e.g., appearance-based apps or real-time ultraviolet index (UVI) monitors). Conclusions. There is a lack of high-quality published studies investigating the interventions delivered in a secondary school setting to protect students from UVR. The evidence could be strengthened if researchers used consistent, standardised outcome measures for sun protection exposure and behaviour. Other factors limiting the strength of evidence were short follow-up times (largely less than 6 months) and/or nonrobust study design.
Inguinal Lymph Node Dissection for Advanced Stages of Plantar Melanoma in a Low-Income Country
Background. Advanced stages of plantar acral lentiginous melanoma are common in Africa. Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in these cases plays a critical role in disease-free and overall survival. Our study aims to share our experience in ILND for advanced plantar melanomas. Methods and Study Design. Four-year prospective study. Patients. We included all documented cases of advanced stage plantar melanoma with clinically detectable inguinal lymph node metastasis. Twenty-two of 27 patients identified—with mean age 56 years—underwent ILND. Studied Variables. Tumor patterns and stage, surgery, morbidity, oncologic pathology, and evolution were studied. Statistical software assessed the overall survival (OS). Results. Plantar lesions were all excised with a cancer-free margin (3 cm). ILND was performed for 22 patients with visible (n = 11), palpable (n = 7), and ulcerous (n = 4) lymphadenopathies. It was performed through an S-shaped (n = 11) or ellipse-shaped skin incision (n = 11). The tumors were AJCC stage III (n = 18) and IV (n = 2). We found high Breslow index tumor thickness (>3 mm) and an advanced Clark IV stage (n = 20). All operative wounds healed within 46 days (21–90). Wound healing was delayed by suture failure (n = 16), lymphorrhoea (n = 22), and infection (n = 18). After 29 months, three patients had complete remissions, seven had recurrences, and twelve patients had died. The overall survival (OS) at one year was 56%. In two patients with AJCC stage III disease, the OS was better (22 months). Conclusion. In low-income countries, ILND in advanced stages of plantar foot melanoma is a valuable surgical treatment option. Alongside ILND adjuvants, treatment must be available and accessible to improve survival.
Outcomes of Treatment for Melanoma Brain Metastases
Background. Historically, melanoma with brain metastases has a poor prognosis. In this retrospective medical record review, we report basic clinicopathological parameters and the outcomes of patients with melanoma and brain metastases treated with different treatment modalities before the era of immunotherapy and modern radiotherapy technique. Methods. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or systemic therapy from 1998 to 2017. In our study, they were identified and stratified depending on treatment methods. Overall survival was defined as the time from the date of brain metastases to the death or last follow-up (2019 June 1st). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method that was employed to calculate the hazard ratio. Results. Six (12%) of 50 patients are still alive as of the last follow-up. The median overall survival from the onset of brain metastases was 11 months. The longest survival time was observed in patients treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy, surgery followed by radiotherapy and systemic therapy, and also radiotherapy followed by systemic therapy. The shortest survival was observed in the best supportive care group and patients treated by systemic therapy only. Conclusions. Patients with brain metastases achieved better overall survival when treated by combined treatment modalities: surgery followed by radiotherapy (26.6 months overall survival), combining surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy (18.7 months overall survival), and also radiotherapy followed by systemic therapy (13.8 months overall survival).
Histological Peripheral Margins and Recurrence of Melanoma In Situ Treated with Wide Local Excision
Background. The incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS) is increasing faster compared to invasive melanoma. Despite varying international practice, a minimum of 5 mm surgical excision margin is currently recommended in the UK. There is no clear guidance on the minimum histological peripheral clearance margins. Aim. This study compares the histological peripheral clearance margins of MIS using wide local excision (WLE) to the rate of recurrence and progression to invasive disease. Methods. A retrospective single-center review was performed over a 5-year period. Inclusion criteria consisted of MIS diagnosis, ≥16 years of age, and treatment with WLE with curative intent. Those patients with a recurrence of a previous MIS or with a reported focus of invasion/regression were also included. Clinicopathological data and follow-up were recorded. Results. 167 MIS were identified in 155 patients, 80% of which were lentigo maligna subtype. Of patients with completely excised MIS on histology (>0 mm), 9% had recurrence with a median time to recurrence of 36 months. Three (1.8%) cases recurred as invasive disease. Age, MIS site, MIS subtype, and histological evidence of foci of invasion/regression did not predict recurrence nor progression to invasive disease (). The recurrence rate of MIS with a histological excision margin ≤3.0 mm was 13% compared to 3% in those with histology margins of >3.0 mm (). Conclusion. A histological peripheral clearance of at least 3.0 mm is advocated to achieve lower recurrence rates. The follow-up duration should be reviewed due to the median recurrence occurring at 36 months in our cohort. Cumulative work on MIS needs to be collated and completed in a large multicenter study with a long follow-up period.