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Journal of Skin Cancer
Volume 2013, Article ID 453174, 10 pages
Review Article

Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

1Department of Health, Exercise Science & Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, 215 Turner Center, P.O. Box 1848, University, MS 38677, USA
2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, College of Public Health, Kent State University, 750 Hilltop Drive, Kent, OH 44242, USA

Received 29 June 2013; Revised 29 August 2013; Accepted 1 September 2013

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Argenziano

Copyright © 2013 Vinayak K. Nahar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses sociodemographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and ERIC databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers’ sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families’ expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.